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., Buragohain, A. K., 2005: Establishment of callus and cell suspension cultures of Centella asiatica . Biologia Plantarum 49, 411–413. Nau, J., 1996: Ball perennial manual: Propagation and production. Ball Publishing Co., Batavia, IL. Nonogaki, H., 2014: Seed dormancy and germination—emerging mechanisms and new hypotheses. Frontiers in Plant Science 5: 233, doi: 10.3389/fpls.2014.00233. North, J., Ndakidemi, P., Laubscher, C. P., 2010: The potential of developing an in vitro method for propagating strelitziaceae. African Journal of Biotechnology 9, 7583–7588. Oh, S. R

References B abashpour , M., S harivivash , R., R ahbari , A., 2011. Effect of different treatments on seed germination of honey locust (Gleditschia triacanthos). Modern Applied Science, 5: 200–204. B askin , J.M., B askin , C.C., 2004. A classification system for seed dormancy. Seed Science Research, 14 (1): 1–16. B askin , J.M., B askin , C.C., 2014. What kind of seed dormancy might palms have? Seed Science Research, 24 (1): 17–22. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0960258513000342 B ayala , J., D ianda , M., W ilson , J., O uedraogo , S.J., S anon , K., 2009

.,104: 646-652. Bailly C., El-Maarouf-Bouteau H., Corbineau F., 2008 - From intracellular signaling networks to cell death: the dual role of reactive oxygen species in seed physiology. C. R. Biol., 331: 806-814. Baskin, J.M., Baskin, C.C., 2004 - A classification systemt for seed dormancy. Seed Sci. Res., 14: 1-16. Bewley JD., 1997 - Seed germination and dormancy. Plant Cell., 9:1055-66. Bourgoin A., Simpson J.D., 2004 - Soaking, moist-chilling, and temperature effects on germination of Acer pensylvanicumseeds. Can. J. For. Res., 34(10): 2181-2185. Cirak C., Ayan A

) - Les hiscus, tradition et modernité. Phytothérapie . 2006, 3, 136-144. Fang, S., Wang, J., Wei, Z., & Zhu, Z. (2006) - Methods to break seed dormancy in Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal) Iljinskaja. Scient. Horti ., 110, 305-309. Gill, R.S., Ruchika, B., Kaur, S., Gill, R.K., Sidhu, N., Mavi, G.S., Gill, M.S. & Thind, K. (2014) - Seed dormancy. In: Practical Manual of Seed Technology , PBG, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, 58-60. Gorai, M., Gasmi, H., & Neffati, M. (2011) - Factors influencing seed germination of medicinal plant Salvia aegyptiaca

References Ambrožič Dolinšek, J., Ciringer, T., Kaligarič, M., 2016: Micropropagation of the narrow endemic Hladnikia pastinacifolia (Apiaceae). Acta Botanica Croatica 75, 244–252. Baskin, C.C., Baskin, J.M., 1998: Seeds: ecology, biogeography and evolution of dormancy and germination. Academic Press, San Diego. Baskin, J.M., Baskin, C.C., 2004: A classification system for seed dormancy. Seed Science Research 14, 1–16. Baskin, C.C., Milberg, P., Anderson, L., Baskin, J.M., 2000: Deep complex morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of Anthriscus sylvestris

). Seed dormancy and germination. Curr.Opin.Plant Biol., 5(1): 33-36, DOI: 10.1016/S1369-5266(01)00219-9 Labed, A. et al. (2016). Compounds from the pods of Astragalus armatus with antioxidant, anticholinesterase, antibacterial and phagocytic activities. Pharma.Biol., 54(12): 3026-3032, DOI: 10.1080/13880209.2016.1200632 Li, X., Qu, L., Dong, Y., Han, L., Liu, E., Fang, S., Zhang, Y. & Wang, T. (2014). A review of recent research progress on the astragalus genus. Molecules , 19(11): 18850-18880, DOI: 10.3390/molecules191118850 Lubbe, A. & Verpoorte, R. (2011

Abstract

The effect of six SiO2 nanosized concentrations (0, 5, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg L-1) and three seed prechilling treatments (control, seed prechilling before nano SiO2 treatments, treatments of seed with nano SiO2 before prechilling) on germination and seedling growth of tall wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum L.) were studied. Results indicated that application of SiO2 nanoparticles significantly increased seed germination of tall wheatgrass from 58 percent in control group to 86.3 and 85.7 percent in 40 and 60 mg L-1, respectively. Applying SiO2 nanoparticles increased dry weight of shoot, root and seedling of tall wheatgrass. Increasing concentration of nanoparticle from 0 up to 40 mg L-1 increased seedling weight around 49 percent compared to the control, nevertheless decreased under 60 and 80 mg L-1 treatments. In conclusion, seed prechilling in combination with SiO2 nanoparticles largely broke the seed dormancy for A. elongatum.

Micropropagation of the wild legume Canavalia rosea (Sw.) DC. from coastal sand dunes

The wild legume Canavalia rosea (known in India as C. maritima) grows on coastal sand dunes of Southwest India. Anthers and 8 other explant types of this species (tender pods, cotyledons of ripened beans, cotyledons of germinated dry seeds, hypocotyls, young shoot buds, nodes, internodes, and roots) were used for in vitro culture. Among them, cotyledons and hypocotyls of germinated dry seeds showed a positive response. Friable callus production was seen within 4 weeks at the cut ends of cotyledon explants in MS medium fortifed with 1 mg L-1 each of BAP and 2iP. Cotyledon explants of seedlings also showed shoot bud induction in MS medium with 0.5 mg L-1 each of BAP and 2iP. Increased shoot bud induction was seen at elevated concentrations of hormones (7-27%). Hypocotyls inserted upside down on the medium with 1 mg L-1 each of BAP and 2iP, gave rise to leafy shoots within 4 weeks. Solitary or multiple somatic embryos emerged from the 10 week-old calli of cotyledons supplemented with 1.5 mg L-1 each of BAP and 2iP. Secondary embryos were also induced in some of the somatic embryos. Hypocotyls excised from 3-5-day-old seedlings in MS medium at low concentrations of auxins, produced roots within 3 weeks. The stem cuttings treated with IBA (0.25 mg L-1) increased the percentage of rooting response. Conventional methods of propagation of C. rosea through seeds may fail due to seed dormancy and mortality of the seedlings under the hostile conditions of coastal sand dunes, thus in vitro and ex vitro culture and hardening techniques may be feasible for rehabilitation. Moreover, such cultured tissues may serve for extraction of secondary metabolites.

(1998): Alleviation of seed dormancy in white spruce (Picea glauca [MOENCH] VOSS) is dependent on the degree of seed hydration. Seed Sci. & Tech. 26: 555-569. EDWARDS, D. G. W. and Y. A. EL-KASSABY (1995): Douglasfir genotypic response to seed stratification. Seed Sci. & Tech. 23: 771-778. EL-KASSABY, Y. A., K. CHAISURISRI, D. G. W. EDWARDS and D. W. TAYLOR (1993).: Genetic control of germination parameters of Douglas-fir, Sitka spruce, western redcedar, and yellow-cedar and its impact on container nursery production. In: Dormancy and Barriers to Germination

; 55:29-42. 16. Macchia M, Angelini LG, Ceccarini L. Methods to overcome seed dormancy in Echinacea angustifolia DC. Sci Hort 2001; 89:317-24. 17. Wartidiningsih N, Geneve RL, Kester ST. Osmotic priming or chilling stratification improves seed germination of purple coneflower. Hortscience 1994; 29:1445-8. 18. Baskine CC, Baskin JM, Hoffman GR. Seed dormancy in the prairie forbs Echinacea angustifolia var. angustifolia ( Asteraceae ): after-ripening pattern during cold stratification. Int J Plant Sci 1992; 153:239-43. 19. Romero F, Delate K, Hannapel D. The