Dwarka River basin (3882.71 km2) of Eastern India in the Chotonagpur Plateau and Gangetic Plain is highly affected by stone mining and crushing generated dust. In the middle catchment of this basin, there are 239 stone mines and 982 stone crushing units. These produce approximately 258120 tons of dust every year and this dust enters into the river and coats the leaves of plants. On the one hand, this is aggrading in the stream bed, increasing sediment load, decreasing water quality, specifically increasing total dissolved solid, pH, water colour, and it also degrades the vegetation quality. Vegetation quality is also degraded as indicated by decreasing of NDVI values (maximum NDVI in 1990 was 0.70 and in 2016 it was 0.48). Considering all these issues, the present paper intends to identify dust vulnerable zones based on six major driving parameters and the impact of the dust on river morphology, water quality and vegetation quality in different vulnerable zones. Weighted linear combination method (in Arc Gis environment) is used for compositing the selected parameters and deriving vulnerable zones. Weight to the each parameter is assigned based on analytic hierarchy process, a semi quantitative method. According to the results, 579.64 km2 (14.93%) of the catchment area is very highly vulnerable: Here 581 rivers have a length of 713 km and these riversare prone to high dust deposition, increased sediment load and water quality deterioration.
In the Southeastern Black Sea Region, rivers are dammed for hydroelectric power and irrigation. The natural course of fluvial alluvium transport is almost completely altered because of planned and constructed dams and coastal protection measures. Decreasing volume of sediment carried to the sea cause intensification of the shore erosion. The Black Sea Rivers and coastal areas of Turkey and Georgia are under heavy anthropogenic pressure because of the bed material extraction and coastal erosion rate. In this study, environmental effects of dams and related effects of sediment transport on coastal erosion in the Eastern Black Sea region are discussed.
An estimation procedure for suspended sediment concentrations based on the intensity of backscattered sound of acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) is introduced in this paper. Based on detailed moving and fixed boat ADCP measurements with concurrent sediment sampling, we have successfully calibrated the estimation method for a reach of River Danube in Hungary, characterized by significant suspended sediment transport. The effect of measurement uncertainty and various data filtering on sediment load determination is also analyzed and quantified. Some of the physical model parameters describing the propagation of sound in water are estimated based on known empirical formulas, while other parameters are derived from measured. Regression analysis is used to obtain a relationship between the intensity of backscattered sound and sediment concentrations. The empirical relationship has been then used to estimate the suspended sediment concentrations from the ADCP data collected in fixed and moving boat measurement operation mode, along verticals and path-lines, respectively. We show that while some measurement uncertainty is inherent to the acoustic Doppler principle, it is further enhanced by the complexity of the near-bottom sediment-laden flow. This uncertainty has then a significant effect on the local sediment load estimation. In turn, reasonable smoothing of raw velocity and backscatter intensity data shows insignificant impact on cross-sectional sediment load estimation.
The sediment dynamics in a small 2nd order catchment of River Awba in the territory of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria was investigated between January and December 2012. The river was gauged by daily measurements of water level as well as sampling of water for determination of suspended sediment load. In this regard, apart from weekly sample, twelve (12) storm flow events which occurred during the day were sampled for determination of suspended sediment concentration. The results showed that during the storms the suspended sediment concentration varied between 636 mg/l in May and 3641.5 mg/l in September, with a mean of 2136.8 mg/l. Also, the value of monthly suspended sediment yield ranged from 10.85 kg in January to 288.4 kg in October with a mean of 89.5 kg. The variability in monthly sediment load closely followed the trend of monthly rainfall in the study area. However, in order to minimize the storm runoff and sediment load generated from the rainstorms events, the paved surfaces within the study catchment should be grassed with the planting of some few tree species. This could further reduce the rate of floods occurrence.
Topsoil erosion and mass soil losses from hillslopes have negatively affected water quality, vegetation health, local ecosystems, and livelihood. Studies have stated the effectiveness of vegetation in significantly reducing top-soil erosion and enhancing slope stability. This study aims to better understand the application of erosional models in Haiyuan of Ningxia, a semi-arid region of China. The study site is comprised of 20 experimental plots with 11 vegetation covers and 5 slope gradients in design, which were compared to the benchmark of bare land with each slope gradient. Meteorological data and soil hydraulic measurements were collected from 2005 to 2012, and runoff and sediment load were measured by concrete basins at the base of the slopes, which mainly occurred during the summer storms. Multi-plots provide different combinations of vegetation covers and slopes to identify the driving factors of topsoil erosion during rainfall-runoff events and to examine the threshold behavior of their inter-relationship. In order to determine which models were most applicable to this area, the results of RUSLE and CSLE were applied to the data and compared to the known results.
This study shows a comprehensive simulation of water and sediment fluxes from the catchment to the reach scale. We describe the application of a modelling cascade in a well researched study catchment through connecting stateof- the-art public domain models in ArcGIS. Three models are used consecutively: (1) the hydrological model SWAT to evaluate water balances, sediment input from fields and tile drains as a function of catchment characteristics; (2) the onedimensional hydraulic model HEC-RAS to depict channel erosion and sedimentation along a 9 km channel onedimensionally; and (3) the two-dimensional hydraulic model AdH for simulating detailed substrate changes in a 230 m long reach section over the course of one year. Model performance for the water fluxes is very good, sediment fluxes and substrate changes are simulated with good agreement to observed data. Improvement of tile drain sediment load, simulation of different substrate deposition events and carrying out data sensitivity tests are suggested as future work. Main advantages that can be deduced from this study are separate representation of field, drain and bank erosion processes; shown adaptability to lowland catchments and transferability to other catchments; usability of the model’s output for habitat assessments.
In response to the continually increasing sediment concentrations in rivers and lakes, the Ethiopian government is leading an effort where farmers are installing soil and water conservation measures to increase infiltration and reduce erosion. This paper reports on findings from a four year study in the 95 ha Debre Mawi watershed where under the government led conservation works, mainly terraces with infiltration furrows were installed halfway in the period of observation. The results show that runoff volume decreased significantly after installation of the soil and water conservation practices but sediment concentration decreased only marginally. Sediment loads were reduced mainly because of the reduced runoff. Infiltration furrows were effective on the hillsides where rain water could infiltrate, but on the flat bottom lands that become saturated with the progress of the monsoon rain, infiltration was restricted and conservation practices became conduits for carrying excess rainfall. This caused the initiation of gullies in several occasions in the saturated bottomlands. Sediment concentration at the outlet barely decreased due to entrainment of loose soil from unstable banks of gullies in the periodically saturated bottom areas. Since most uphill drainage were already half filled up with sediments after two years, long term benefits of reducing runoff can only be sustained with continuous maintenance of uphill infiltration furrows.
Intensive agricultural practice in Ethiopian highlands results in increasing rates of soil erosion and reservoir sedimentation. The estimation of sediment yield and prediction of the spatial distribution of soil erosion on the upper Megech reservoir catchment enables the local governments and policymakers to maximize the design span life of the Megech reservoir through implementing appropriate soil conservation practices. For this study, the sediment yield was estimated and analyzed through hydrological modeling (SWAT). The simulated outputs of the model show that the mean annual surface runoff was 282 mm and the mean annual streamflow was 153 m3/s. Similarly, 12.33 t/ha mean annual total sediment load gets into the Megech reservoir. The model performance standard used to evaluate the model result indicates that the model was superior in performing the trend of runoff and sediment yield in both calibration and validation periods. Finally, the most erosion vulnerable sub-basins that could have a significant impact on the sediment yield of the reservoir were identified. Based on this, sub-basin 7, 25, 27, 18 and 29 were found to be the most erosion sensitive areas that could have a significant contribution to the increment of sediment yield in the Megech reservoir. Considering the land use, soil type, slope, and relief of erosion vulnerable sub-basins cut off drains, fallow land, contour ploughing, Fanya juu terraces, soil bunds combined with trenches and trees could be the possible management strategies to reduce the sediment yield in the catchment.
The partial bleaching of the luminescence signal prior to deposition results in age overestimation, and can be a problem in delineating fluvial evolution within an OSL chronological framework. The Inner Mongolian reaches of the Yellow River are characterised by a high sediment load and complex sources of sediments. To test the incomplete bleaching occurring in this type of environment, the residual doses and the luminescence signal characteristics of different particle size fractions from 14 modern fluvial sediment samples were investigated. Furthermore, 26 OSL ages derived from drilling cores were compared with 11 radiocarbon ages. Our results show that the residual equivalent doses principally range between 0.16 and 0.49 Gy for silt grains, and between 0.35 and 3.72 Gy for sand grains of modern samples. This suggests that medium-grained quartz has been well bleached prior to deposition, and is preferable to coarse-grained quartz when dating fluvial sediments in this region. The results also show that the De values of coarse-grained fractions display a stronger correlation with distance downstream. In addition, a comparison of OSL and radiocarbon ages from drilling cores establishes further confidence that any initial bleaching of these sediments was sufficient. As a result, we believe that the studied fluvial samples were well bleached prior to deposition.
Drainage of paved and unpaved roads has been implicated as a major contributor of overland flow and erosion in mountainous landscapes. Despite this, few watershed models include or have tested for the effect roads have on discharge and sediment loads. Though having a model is an important step, its proper application and attention to distinct landscape features is even more important. This study focuses on developing a module for drainage from a road and tests it on a nested watershed (Shanko Bahir) within a larger previously studied site (Debre Mawi) that receives overland flow contributions from a highly compacted layer of soil on an unpaved road surface. Shanko Bahir experiences a sub-humid monsoonal climate and was assessed for the rainy seasons of 2010, 2011, and 2012. The model chosen is the Parameter Efficient Distributed (PED) model, previously used where saturation-excess overland flow heavily influences discharge and sediment concentration variation, though infiltration-excess occasionally occurs. Since overland flow on unpaved surfaces emulates Hortonian flow, an adjustment to the PED model (the developed module) advances possible incorporation of both flow regimes. The modification resulted in similar modeling performance as previous studies in the Blue Nile Basin on a daily basis (NSE = 0.67 for discharge and 0.71 for sediment concentrations). Furthermore, the road while occupying a small proportion of the sub-watershed (11%) contributed importantly to the early discharge and sediment transport events demonstrating the effect of roads especially on sediment concentrations. Considerations for the dynamic erodibility of the road improved sediment concentration simulation further (NSE = 0.75). The results show that this PED modeling framework can be adjusted to include unpaved compacted surfaces to give reasonable results, but more work is needed to account for contributions from gullies, which can cause high influxes of sediment.