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Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) is a shrub of the family Lamiaceae, native to the Mediterranean region. The material used for herbal purposes includes lavender flowers (Lavandula flores) containing essential oil (3%), anthocyanins, phytosterols, sugars, minerals, and tannins. The qualitative and quantitative composition of the essential oil of lavender is variable and depends on genotype, growing location, climatic conditions, propagation, and morphological features. The essential oil contains over 300 chemical compounds. The dominant components are linalool, linalyl acetate, terpinen-4-ol, acetate lavandulol, oci-mene, and cineole. Lavender essential oil has good antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and a significant positive effect on the digestive and nervous systems. Lavender extract prevents dementia and may inhibit the growth of cancer cells, while lavender hydrolate is recommended for the treatment of skin problems and burns.

Reports, 39, 7927–7932. doi: 10.1007/s11033-012-1637-5. Rasmussen MK, Klausen CL, Ekstrand B (2014): Regulation of cytochrome P450 mRNA expression in primary porcine hepatocytes by selected secondary plant metabolites from chicory ( Cichorium intybus L.). Food Chemistry, 146, 255–263. doi: 10.1016/ Rius MA, Hortós M, García-Regueiro JA (2005): Influence of volatile compounds on the development of off-flavours in pig back fat samples classified with boar taint by a test panel. Meat Science, 71, 595–602. doi: 10.1016/j.meats-ci.2005


The popularity of plant-based feed additives in livestock production has increased significantly in the last decade. Polyphenols are secondary plant metabolites which contain bioactive components and deliver positive effects for humans and animals. They are renowned for their anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-mutagenic effects. Polyphenols have antioxidant properties, and they minimize the negative consequences of oxidative stress. Their antioxidant capacity is comparable to that of the major biological antioxidants: vitamins E and C. Despite those advantages, polyphenols are characterized by low bioavailability, and further research is needed to harness their full potential in livestock farming. This article presents a review of findings from recent studies investigating the efficacy of polyphenols in monogastric nutrition, with special emphasis on their antioxidant properties.


The polyphenol content of propolis has received a lot of attention due to the benign biological properties noted in the chemical composition studies. However, there are very limited studies about other chemical components found in trace amounts in nature which contribute to the therapeutic properties of propolis. The present study, therefore, investigated the amino acid and vitamin composition of propolis. Propolis harvested by 60 colonies of Apis mellifera caucasica belonged to local non-migratory beekeepers. The A. m. caucasica is known for its distinctive propolis collecting capability which native to the secluded Ardahan Province of Turkey. Vitamin (Thiamine, Riboflavin) combinations of propolis were determined using the HPLC (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography) fluorescent detector. An amino acid analysis was also performed with the UFLC (Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography) system consisting of binary pump and UV/VIS. Our findings record that the vitamin and amino acid content of propolis samples collected from three areas of different altitudes in the same region differed from each other. Vitamin B1 content and Vitamin B2 content ranged between 0.025-0.16 mg/100g, and 0.304-0.777mg/100g, respectively. A maximum amount of amino acid was reported as leucine, while a minimum amount of amino acid was seen as tryptophan in Ardahan propolis. Consequently, the vitamin and amino acid content of propolis, which derived from secondary plant metabolites of resin, varied depending on their geographical altitudes. Those vitamin and amino acids found in the propolis composition are believed to have beneficial therapeutic properties.

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York. Tomczyk A. 2002. Changes in secondary plant metabolites in cucumber leaves induced by spider mites and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) In: Induced Resistance in Plants against Insects and Diseases. Bull. OILB (SROP) 25: 67-71. Wang Y. N., Shi G. L., Zhao L. L., Liu S. Q., YU T. Q., Clarke S. R., Sun J. H. 2007. Acaricidal activity of Juglans regia leaf extracts on Tetranychus viennensis and Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acari: Tetranychidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 100: 1298-1303. Zhang Y. Q., Ding W., Zhao Z. M., Wu J., Fan Y. H. 2008. Studies on

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