The article presents the unique results of a study of the spatial distribution of owls in the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan by season of the year on long-term data. Ravkin’s transect method was used to census fixed randomly selected plots spread over a large geographic area. Abundance a lot of species of owls strong changed of different seasons of the year. In general, owls were indifferent to latitudinal, longitudinal, and altitude gradients in the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan, especially in winter and autumn periods. Probability of occurrences of boreal and pygmy owls can be used as indicators of the biological diversity of forest ecosystems in winter period.
relation to body mass, age of nestling, and seasonoftheyear. Physiol. Zool. 70 : 278-282. Kostelecka-Myrcha A., Chołostiakow-Gromek J. 2001: Body mass dependence of the haemoglobin content to surface area ratio of avian erythrocytes. A. Ornithol. 36 : 123-128. Kostelecka-Myrcha A. 2002: The ratio of amount of haemoglobin to total surface area of erythrocytes in mammals. A. Theriol. 47 (1): 209-220. Lay P. A., Baldwin J. 1999: What determines the size of teleost erythrocytes? Correlations with oxygen transport and nuclear volume. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 20 : 31
The Polish Armed Forces use tracked vehicles that serve as a core element of the ground combat forces. These vehicles are capable of fighting in all kinds of terrain conditions, in any season of the year. Combat missions are often fought in areas where even no dirt roads are available. The present paper assesses the reliability of tracked vehicles in the context of their irregular operation, as well as service- and maintenance-related vulnerability.
Air microbial quality of the municipal landfill site and in its surroundings was evaluated. Adverse impact of the municipal landfill site in Tarnow on the atmospheric environment was noted, despite the use of correct waste disposal technology. The sampling site and season of the year significantly affected the numbers of various groups of air microorganisms at the municipal landfill site and in its vicinity. For most cases, the effects of the sampling site on the microbial numbers were stronger than that of the season of the year. In this study, higher microbial numbers were observed at the sampling sites located in the area of the active landfill site compared to those located in its vicinity. The obtained results indicate, that despite the lack of current limits for bioaerosol levels the landfill site, even after its closing and reclamation, may still not be a suitable place for any public usage. Therefore, any regular microbiological studies of air should be carried out for a long time both at the area of landfill site and in its vicinity. These results could allow to define the time, when the landfill site become stable, regarding the numbers of microorganisms released to air.
Municipal waste landfills are a source of microbial contamination. The aim of the study was to determine the degree of air pollution by bacteria, including the coli group, fungi and actinomycetes. The object of the analysis was the landfill of the Department for the Recovery and Storage of Municipal Waste in Leśno Górne. Analyses were performed in the four seasons of the year, taking into account the weather, status of the number of microorganisms and degree of risk to human health and life.
Introduction. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) was first described by Hadorn as a measure of the lung function. The definition of PEFR established by the European Respiratory Society defines it as the maximal flow achieved during the phase of expiration, delivered with maximal force and starting from the maximal lung inflation level.
Aim. The authors of this study attempted at evaluating the variations of PEFR, taking into consideration the effects of one’s age, height Body Mass Index (BMI), Body Surface Area (BSA), seasons of the year and air pollution. Healthy adults living in urban areas were subjects of the study.
Material and methods. The study group consisted of some 179 healthy subjects, 102 women and 77 men, aged 18 to 66. Every patient’s medical history, including epidemiological, demographic data, as well as the information about the occurrence and symptoms of lung diseases, was taken from every patient. Only healthy subjects were selected for further analysis. Participants performed spirometry testing. Physical parameters were measured. Appropriate pollution data was obtained.
Results. The study group consisted of 179 patients (102 women and 77 men). There is a negative correlation between PEFR and age and a positive one between PEFR and height, as well as Body Surface Area and BMI (regarded as a quantitative, but not as a qualitative trait). There is a significant correlation between PEFR and PEFR adjusted by age, height and weight with seasons of the year. There is a statistically significant negative impact of NO2, SO2 and O3 24 h mean and hourly NO2 concentration on PEFR.
Conclusions. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate changes are also present in a healthy adult population. Prevalence of obesity is an important factor of the examined population.
The paper describes the relationship between direct solar radiation in a city (Warsaw) and in its broadly-defined suburban area (Belsk). The analysis covers the days of 1969-2003 when observations were carried out at both sites. The degree of extinction of solar radiation was expressed by means of Linke’s turbidity factor. Its mean annual value on the selected days of the period under consideration was 3.00± 0.10 in Warsaw and 2.87±0.11 in Belsk. Average atmospheric turbidity for individual seasons of the year as well as for the whole year was higher in Warsaw than in Belsk. In all cases, except for the summer, these differences were statistically significant. The period considered was divided into two sub-periods (1969-1993 and 1994-2003), in which atmospheric turbidity in Warsaw and in Belsk was compared by individual seasons and whole years. At both analysed sites Linke’s atmospheric turbidity factor decreased in 1994-2003, compared to the values for the earlier sub-period (1969-1993). However, the average annual atmospheric turbidity in Warsaw in comparison to Belsk remained the same, i.e. greater turbidity occurred in the city in both sub-periods.
Comprehensive understanding of the destination perception by its visitors represents one of the key prerequisites of professional destination management on its both strategic and tactical level. This study continues in previous research focused on the analysis of the perception of different landscape types of the Czech Republic, zooming this time on the perception of the landscape of the Bohemian Paradise destination. The emphasis is put on the understanding of manifestations of genius loci and the exogenous factors in the landscape perception. The participant ´s observation of visitors’ behaviour, evaluation of their spontaneous discussions and comments, structured interviews and introspection supplemented by recordings of exogenous factors represented methods used to get an insight into the perception of landscape and genius loci manifestation in the selected research localities. The qualitative research strategy in the form of pilot research led to the confirmation of suitability of applied methods and to the formulation of the preliminary hypotheses of the future quantitative research. The findings of this pilot research indicate the correctness of the assumption of the exogenous factors (weather, daytimes and seasons of the year) influence on the landscape perception as well as the manifestation of the genius loci perceived by the majority of visitors.
The problem of determining the dependence of the chainsaw on the density of wood, substantiation of effective options for the number of chainsaws in the assortment and whiplash method of logging is quite relevant. In the Far East of Russia, in particular, in the Amur region, the forest growth conditions are different from the western ones, and therefore, the properties of the wood differ from the generally accepted ones. The article describes forest growth conditions that influence the properties of the wood in areas of the Amur region. Using the method of density determination, the density of larch, pine and birch were studied for first time in the areas of the region. The dependence of the density on humidity, age, species, season of the year and the area of growth was found out. The results of the research showed that under humidity of 70%, the density of larch was 1088.99 kg/m3, it was 919.8 kg/m3 for pine and it was for birch 915.9 kg/m3.
Yeast-like microorganisms are frequently isolated from horses. There is a serious interpretation problem with assessment of the health status in the diagnostics of infectious diseases, which is associated with the insufficient knowledge of the composition of the natural flora in the horses’ integumentary system. The aim of the investigations was to analyse the yeast-like flora isolated from healthy Felin ponies. The study involved 44 horses aged from 2 to 12 years. The analysed group comprised 28 mares and 16 stallions. The animals were kept in an outdoor rearing system with a possibility of periodic use of a wooden/brick shed. The investigations were conducted in an annual cycle divided into 4 periods corresponding to the seasons of the year. Smears were sampled from horses’ nostrils, mouth, ear, back, groin, vagina or foreskin, and collateral groove. Microbiological analysis of the yeast-like strains was performed after plating 1015 samples of material taken from healthy horses. The identification of fungal species was based on their culture characteristics and biochemical profile. Fourteen yeast species were isolated and identified from the sampled material. Candida guilliermondii and Candida albicans 1 were the most prevalent fungi. The study has shown seasonal variability of the composition of the integumentary system microflora in Felin ponies. The greatest number of isolates was obtained from the material sampled from the mouth.