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Chios is a breed of sheep selected for milk production, with metabolic features typical for a dairy sheep breed. The energy requirements of pregnant sheep is increase in the last weeks of gestation. Metabolic imbalance in the late pregnancy in sheep, usually cause a metabolic disorder known as pregnancy toxemia. Additionally, a pregnant sheep exposed to low environmental temperatures has increased energy demands, due to its adaptation to undesirable environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic profile of Chios sheep exposed to different environmental conditions.Two groups of ewes were instigated. First group included 8 pregnant ewes with clinical signs of pregnancy toxemia exposed to cold stress during the winter season. The second group included 8 non-pregnant, clinically healthy ewes, that were examined during the non-breeding period, in the spring season. Blood samples were taken and serum concentrations of glucose, beta-hydroxybutirate (BHBA), total protein, albumin, urea, creatinine, triglyceride and cholesterol, as well as activity of AST and ALP were determined. Pregnant ewes exposed to cold stress had significantly lower levels of glucose and total protein, and significantly higher levels of BHBA, albumin and AST in the serum compared to non-pregnant ewes that were in optimal environmental conditions. There was no significant difference between the serum levels of urea, creatinine, cholesterol, triglycerides and ALP among the groups. In conclusion, low environmental temperature and poor feeding during the winter season caused metabolic distress in pregnant ewes during the early winter season.
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This study presents the specificity of season destinations and how to put into practice traditional and flexible opportunities for managing tourist sites in them. A distinction has been made between “hired” management and “timeshare” in tourism, as two of the main forms of flexible management. An online market survey was conducted to offer new flexible forms of management in the tourism business. Their advantages and disadvantages for the tourist sites are analyzed
This study determines the approximate duration of the thermal seasons in Warsaw, and investigates their long-term variability. The measurement data come from the Ursynów meteorological station at the Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS) (λE 21°02’52’’, φN 52°09’38’’, 102.5 m a.s.l.), situated in the south of Warsaw, and comprise mean diurnal air temperatures for the years 1961-2013. In order to identify thermal seasons, the method of five-day rolling averages was applied, which revealed a substantial year-by-year variability. The achieved results were close to those found by other methods for stations situated within the same climatic region. Over the analysed period, winters and springs have become shorter, whereas the other two seasons have become longer. Nevertheless, the positive trend was only statistically significant for thermal summers. The increasing length of the thermal summer in Warsaw Ursynów may be due to the influence of urban heat islands in built-up areas.