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Mihelić Damir, Smodlaka Hrvoje, Tkalčić Suzana, Palmer Lauren, Mršić Gordan, Špiranec Katarina, Špoljarić Daniel, Popović Maja and Mihelić Draga
The lumbosacral plexus was investigated in the California sea lion and Northern elephant seal. In 9 California sea lions and 2 Northern elephant seals the femoral nerve rises from the ventral branches of the 3rd and 4th lumbar nerves, whilst in one male and two specimens of the Northern elephant seal the 5th lumbar nerve was also involved. Ventral branches of the 3rd and 4th lumbar nerves comprised the obturatorius nerve in 7 specimens; in 3 specimens the 5th lumbar nerve additionally supplements the obturatorius nerve. In Northern elephant seals the obturatorius nerve originates from the ventral branches of the 3rd, 4th and 5th lumbar nerves. The ischiadic nerve originates from the ventral branches of the 4th, 5th lumbar and 1st sacral nerves in 8 specimens California sea lions and in 2 North elephant seals. In 2 specimens of both species the 2nd sacral nerve also participates. The gluteal nerve created ventral branches of the 5th lumbar and 1st sacral nerves in three specimens; however in one specimen the 4th and 5th lumbar nerves gave rise to the same nerve in the Northern elephant seal. In California sea lions the gluteal nerve originates from the ventral branches of the 5th lumbar nerve in seven specimens, nonetheless in 3 specimens the 4th lumbar nerve also participates in its formation.
Karolina Matej, Iwona Pawliczka, Jerzy M. Sawicki, Paweł Wielgat and Piotr Zima
To create proper living conditions for sea mammals kept in closed systems, one has to make sure that the characteristics of breeding pools, such as their shape, dimensions, the facing of the walls and bottom, as well as the quality and motion of water, resemble as closely as possible the natural environment of the animals. An appropriate system of water exchange plays a very important role here. A complete exchange of water is time-consuming, expensive and troublesome, so it can be performed only periodically and should be supported by a supplementary continuous exchange. This operation improves water quality and can create a proper velocity field in breeding pools. The breeding pools investigated in the present study are located in a sealarium in Hel (Poland), which belongs to the Institute of Oceanography of the Gdansk University. Tracer measurements, carried out in these reservoirs made it possible to evaluate the intensity of continuous water exchange. It was found that this intensity was insufficient (as evidenced by large dead zones in the pools and short detention time), and therefore alterations to the existing system were proposed (i.e. a tangential position of the inlet and a centrally situated outlet). On the basis of a simplified model of circulative water flow, it was shown that the altered hydraulic system can considerably improve the situation.
Marcin Weiner, Krzysztof Szulowski and Wojciech Iwaniak
., MacMillan A.P., Godfroid J., Howie F., Ross H.M., Cloeckaert A., Reid R.J., Brew S., Patterson I.A.P.: A review of Brucella sp. infection of seamammals with particular emphasis on isolates from Scotland, Vet Microbiol 2002, 36 , 563-580.
5. Gall D., Nielsen K., Forbes L., Davis D., Elzer P., Olsen S., Balsevicius S., Kelly L., Smith P., Tan S., Joly D.: Validation of the fluorescence polarization assay and comparison to other serological assays for the detection of serum antibodies to Brucella abortus in bison. J Wildl Dis 2000, 36 , 469
Marcin Weiner, Wojciech Iwaniak and Krzysztof Szulowski
scrofa ) as reservoirs of Brucella suis biovar 2 in Croatia. Acta Vet Hung 2003, 51 , 465-473.
9. Dajer A., Luna-Martinez E., Zapata D., Villegas S., Gutierrez E., Pena G., Gurria F., Nielsen K., Gall D.: Evaluation of a fluorescence-polarization assay for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in Mexico. Prev Vet Med 1999, 40 , 67-73.
10. Foster G., MacMillan A.P., Godfroid J., Howie F., Ross H.M., Cloeckaert A., Reid R.J., Brew S., Patterson I.A.P.: A review of Brucella sp. infection of seamammals with particular emphasis on
Jarosław Chmielewski, Piotr Kusztal and Ilona Żeber-Dzikowska
], Bigger pieces of marine plastics (e.g. plastic caps) floating on the ocean surface are swallowed by seamammals and birds, which block their digestive systems causing death ( Fig. 10 ). Drifting masses of debris forms a new symbiotic system called plastisphere, within which microorganisms develop differently from ecosystems known so far. It may irreversibly change the marine environment and disturb functioning of the food chain, which also includes humans [ Heimowska 2016 ]. That is why marine debris in forms of dense and widespread concentrations, for example, in the