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SPH Modelling of Sea-ice Pack Dynamics

References Babko O., Rothrock D. A. and Maykut G. A. (2002) Role of rafting in the mechanical redistribution of sea ice thickness, J. Geophys. Res., 107 (C8), 3113, DOI: 10.1029/1999JC000190. Belytschko T., Krongauz Y., Dolbow J. and Gerlach C. (1998) On the completeness of meshfree particle methods, Int. J. Numer. Meth. Eng., 43 (5), 785-819, DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0207(19981115) 43:5. Chadwick P. (1999) Continuum Mechanics: Concise Theory and Problems, Dover, Mineola, New York, 2nd edn. Flato

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Sea Ice Management for Oil and Gas Platforms in the Bohai Sea

, Valentin A.: Russian iceberg observations in the Barents Sea, 1933-1990. Polar Research, No 2, Vol.11, 1992, p.93-97. 7. Eik, K.: Review of experiences within ice and iceberg management. Journal of Navigation, No4, Vol.61, 2008, p. 557-572. 8. AR Mahoney, H Eicken, AG Gaylord, R Gens.: Landfast sea ice extent in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas the annual cycle and decadal variability. Cold Regions Science & Technology, No 1, Vol.103, 2014, p.41-56. 9. K Eik, OT Gudmestad.: Iceberg management and impact on design of offshore

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Numerical Simulations of Sea Ice Conditions in the Baltic Sea for 2010–2016 Winters Using the 3D CEMBS Model

REFERENCES 1. Koslowski, G., Loewe, P. (1994). The western Baltic Sea ice season in terms of mass–related severity index: 1879–1992. Tellus , 46A, 66–74. 2. Tinz, B. (1996). On the relation between annual maximum extent of ice cover in the Baltic Sea and sea level pressure as well as air temperature field. Geophysica , 32, 319–341. 3. Pirazzini, R., Vihma, T., Granskog, M.A., Cheng, B. (2006). Surface albedo measurements over sea ice in the Baltic Sea during the spring snowmelt period. Annals of Glaciology , 44, 7–14. 4. BACC II Author

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Simulation of Sea-ice Thermodynamics by a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Method

References Babko O., Rothrock D. A., Maykut G. A. (2002) Role of rafting in the mechanical redistribution of sea ice thickness, J. Geophys. Res. , 107 (C8), 3113, DOI: 10.1029/1999JC000190. Belytschko T., Krongauz Y., Dolbow J., Gerlach C. (1998) On the completeness of meshfree particle methods, Int. J. Numer. Meth. Eng. , 43 (5), 785–819, DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0207(19981115) 43:5. Bitz C. M., Lipscomb W. H. (1999) An energy-conserving thermodynamic model for sea ice, J. Geophys. Res. , 104 (C7), 15 669–15 677, DOI: 10.1029/1999JC

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Simulation of optimal arctic routes using a numerical sea ice model based on an ice-coupled ocean circulation method

References Chapman, D.C., 1985. Numerical treatment of cross-shelf open boundaries in a barotropic coastal ocean model. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 15(8), pp.1060-1075. Choi, K.S., Nam, J.H., Park, Y.J., Ha, J.S. and Jeong, S.Y., 2010. Northern sea route transit analysis for large cargo vessels.The 25th international symposium on Okhotsk sea & sea ice. Mombetsu, Hokkaido, Japan 21-26 February 2010. pp. 194-200. Dijkstra, E.W., 1959. A note on two problems in connexion with graphs. Numerische Mathematik, 1

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Analysis of Ice Conditions in the Baltis Sea and in the Puck Bay

References [1] Baltic Sea ice winters. Ice winters in the Baltic Sea, Finish Meteorological Institute , [online], http://en.ilmatieteenlaitos.fi/baltic-sea-ice-winters [access 16.07.2017]. [2] Dyrcz C., Analysis of the occurrence of ice balls on the Hel Peninsula, ‘Scientific Journal of Polish Naval Academy’, 2014, No. 1, pp. 17-29. [3] Ice winters in the Baltic Sea, Finish Meteorological Institute, [online], http://en.ilmatieteenlaitos.fi/ice-winter-in-the-baltic-sea [access 16.07.2017]. [4

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Use of Satellite Data in Monitoring of Hydrophysical Parameters of the Baltic Sea Environment

, Oceanologia, 50 (2), (2008), 125-146. 7. A. Mazur, A. Krężel: Object-based classification of Baltic Sea ice extent and concentration in winter, J. Earth Sci. Engng, 2, (2011), 488-495. 8. K. Myrberg, O. Andrejev, Main upwelling regions in the Baltic Sea - a statistical analysis based on threedimensional modelling, Boreal Environment Research, 8, (2003), 97-112. 9. L.L. Stowe., A.M. Ignatov, R.R. Singh: Development, validation, and potential enhancements to the secondgeneration operational aerosol product at the National

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Safety of Navigation in the Arctic

Abstract

This article presents the results of research based on analysis of ice conditions on the Arctic Sea in recent years and consequences of these changes. The Arctic ice extent are changed due to global warming. Reducing the ice surface leads to intensification of the navigation of the waters of the Arctic Sea, resulting in a significant reduction of the distance between the ports of Europe and East Asia and the North and South Americas. This phenomenon is conducive to the opening of new shipping routes leading through the Arctic Sea. After the entry into force of 1st January, 2017 The International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters (Polar Code) is expected to improve the safety of conducting the navigation of the waters. Analysis of maritime accidents in the Arctic waters shows that the number of accidents has a growing trend, however, last year brings them a significant decreasing.

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Dynamics and Impacting Factors of Ice Regimes in Latvia Inland and Coastal Waters

temperature variability in Sweden: Spatial and temporal variations. Tellus, 51A, 505–516. Gebre, S., Boissy, T., Alfredsen, K. (2014). Sensitivity to climate change of the thermal structure and ice cover regime of three hydropower reservoirs J. Hydrol ., 510 (3), 208–227. Granskog, M., Kaartokallio, H., Kuosa, H., Thomas, D. N., Vainia, J. (2006). Sea ice in the Baltic Sea. Estuar. Coast. Shelf . Sci., 70 , 145–160. Hagen, E., Feistel, R. (2005). Climatic turning pints and regime shifts in the Baltic Sea region: The Baltic winter index (WIBIX) 1659

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Study on icebreaking performance of the Korea icebreaker ARAON in the arctic sea

References Bomford, 4th edition, 1984. GEODESY, Oxford : Clarendon Press, ISBN : 019851946X. Choi, K. Lee, C.J. Rim, C.W. and Kim, H.S., 2011. Strength Characteristics of Arctic Sea Ice from Ice Field Tests of the Icebreaking Research Vessel ARAON (to appear in Korean). Transactions of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea, 48(3), pp.254-259. Kim, H.S. Park, G.I. and Ha, M.K., 2001. Computerized Measurement System of Ship Speed and Maneuvering Performance in Sea Trial, Journal of the society of naval

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