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Abstract

Sea buckthorn leaves and branches presently create waste-/by-products of harvesting after pruning the plants. It is already known that sea buckthorn berries are important for their chemical composition and based on this occupy a wide field in nutrition. We raised the idea that sea buckthorn leaves, branches, and especially the bark, have also an extraordinary chemical composition like the berries. The aim of this study was to describe these by-products. For this purpose, detailed full analyses of corresponding samples from Russia (seven varieties) and Germany (four varieties) were performed. Especially the dry mass, fat content, proteins, carbohydrates, starch content, and crude fiber were investigated to obtain an overview. Minor components like total phenol content, metals, and water- and fat-soluble vitamins were also studied. All analytical parameters were based on an official collection of analysis methods (German ASU - amtliche Sammlung von Untersuchungsverfahren). The results of the full analysis of leaves and branches show some interesting aspects about the differences between male and female plants. Furthermore, we observed differences between Russian and German sea buckthorn varieties. Investigation of minor components showed that vitamins were present in very low amount (< 0.1 %).

., Verhagen, H. (2009). Opinion on the safety of Tahitian Noni® ‘Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit puree and concentrate’ as a novel food ingredient. Scientific opinion of the panel on dietetic products, nutrition and allergies. EFSA Journal, 998, 1-16. Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.2903/j.efsa.2009.998/epdf (accessed 25 September 2016). Hellström, J., Pihlava, J.-M., Kauppinen, S. (2015). Phytosterols and flavonols in sea buckthorn leaves. In: Kauppinen, S., Petruneva, E. (eds.). Producing Sea Buckthorn of High Quality. Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop

. Food Chem., 127 (4), 1521-1525. Lee, H. I., Kim, M. S., Park, S. K., Seo, K. I., Kim, H. J., Kim, M. J., Choi, M. S., Lee, M. K. (2011). Anti-visceral obesity and antioxidant effects of powdered sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaf tea in diet-induced obese mice. Food Chem. Toxicol ., 49 (9), 2370-2376. Li, T. S. C., Wardle, D. (2003). Effect of harvest period on the protein content in sea buckthorn leaves. Can. J. Plant Sci., 83 (2), 409-410. Maheshwari, D. T., Kumar, Y. Y. S., Verma, S. K., Singh, V. K., Singh, S. N. (2011). Antioxidant and

Abstract

All parts of the sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) plant are considered to contain large amounts of compounds that are believed to have beneficial health effects. Till now, different parts of sea buckthorn plant have been used for the treatment of diseases in traditional medicine in various countries. Nevertheless, sea buckthorn parts would be a good raw material not only for medicinal properties but also for food products with functional properties; therefore, the aim of the research was to determine the concentration of different phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in various sea buckthorn parts. The study was conducted on parts of female and male sea buckthorn bushes. Phenolic compounds (total phenols, total flavonoids and condensed tannins) and antioxidative activity (ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) free radical scavenging activity (using 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH)) in ethanolic extracts of leaves, shoots, flowers, and berries were determined using various spectrophotometric methods. The study showed that concentration of phenolic compounds differed among parts of sea buckthorn plant and among gender. Leaves of female plants proved to be the most valuable, as they contained the highest total phenol concentration (165.76 mg/g) and antioxidant activity (220.97 mg/g for FRAP and 43.76 mg/g for DPPH), while lowest values were found in young shoots of male plants (84.94 mg/g, 94.24 mg/g and 24.63 mg/g, respectively). The significant differences in chemical composition and biological activity of sea buckthorn leaves, shoots, berries, and buds indicate a need for detailed studies of their extracts, specific fractions and compounds during a whole vegetative season.