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. (2011). Hochschulen im strategischen Wettbewerb - Empirische Analyse der horizontalen Differenzierung deutscher Hochschulen. Wiesbaden: Gabler Verlag. 18. Finholt, T.A. (2003). Collaboratories as a new form of scientific organization, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 12(1), 5-25. 19. Fombrun, C.J. (1996). Reputation: Realizing Value from the Corporate Image. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. 20. Fombrun, C.J.; van Riel, C.B. (2003). Reputation und Unternehmensergebnis - zentrale Resultate einer empirischen Studie. In: Wiedmann, K


The article presents issues associated with the style of management applied in scientific organizations in the context of sentiments and attitudes of employees. Attention is drawn particularly to the relations between the style of management perceived by employees and the level of their perceived contentedness and the perceived level of satisfaction, as well as between the perceived style of management and attitude reflecting their readiness to recommend an organization as an employer. The application of the method of statistical analysis, namely, the analysis of correspondence allowed drawing the conclusion that there are statistically important relations between the variables. These relations are comparably strongest in case of the perceived style of management and the level of satisfaction. Thus, it can be concluded that applying democratic style to employees favours stimulating their satisfaction and contentedness and at the same time contributes to assuming an open attitude characterized by the readiness to recommend an organization as a workplace and thus co-create its positive image.

, X.; Mishra, S. (2002). The effect of brand alliance portfolio on the perceived quality of an unknown brand. Advances in Consumer Research, 29 (1), 519-520. 22. Fiedler, K. (1996). Processing Social Information for Judgement and Decisions. In: Hewstone, M.; Stroebe, W.; Stephenson, G.M. (Ed.): Introduction to Social Psychology (pp. 135-165), Oxford: Blackwell. 23. Finholt, T.A. (2003). Collaboratories as a new form of scientific organization, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 12 (1), 5-25. 24. Franzen, G.; Bouwman, M. (2001). The Mental World of Brands


In the article the problems related to recommending the employer by employees are presented. It is described as the example of employees’ prosumption activity. Transmitting their opinions about the organization as the employer they become the co-creators its image which is one of the key non-material marketing values. The article has theoretical-empirical character. In the theoretical part the essence of prosumption is presented. The special attention is paid to fact that in the literature this appearance is linked with consumption products not with personnel activity. In the empirical part the results of the field researches on recommending employer and its relation determinants are presented. The statistical analysis in the form of correspondence analysis method has been used to these results. It allows to estimate the dependences between analysed variables, to define the power of identified dependences, to show their character, to sort the relation determinants of recommending in the hierarchical system etc. All of the analysed dependences are significant in the statistically meaning. The stronger dependence exists in the case of vertical relation variable in the comparison to the dependence between recommending employer and horizontal relation variable. Of course each of type of organizational relations should be supported by employer because it influences on employees’ identifying with the organization which is the key determinant of the column variable.


In the article the problems of work perceiving by employees of scientific organizations in the context of marketing orientation rules were presented. It has the theoretical-empirical character. The following research goals were to be gained: identifying the way of work perceiving by respondents; defining the potential dependences between the way of work perceiving (especially its stress dimension) and chosen aspects of professional life. 4 research hypotheses were to be verified. In the empirical part the results of the field researches were presented. To analyse gathered field data the method of correspondence analysis was used. It allowed to gain the research goals and to verify the hypotheses. All of these hypotheses were confirmed. It means that there are statistically significant dependences between the way of work perceiving (especially as stress factor) and analysed row variables. They are relatively the strongest in the case of respondents’ openness for improvement of their intellectual potential. The gained results show that scientific organizations playing the role of employers must conduct activities leading up to positive work perceiving by employees. In this case employees want to improve their knowledge and skills. They are ready to co-create the positive image of given employer too.

behind in the global corporate research race? Policy Contribution , 6, 1–13. 16. Wartzman, R. and Crosby, L. (August 13, 2018). The Key Factor Driving a Company’s Results: Its People. Wall Street Journal , R5). 17. Zehner II, W., Pletcher, G., and Williams, C. (June 2016). „Technology Creates 21st Wealth — Processes, Problems, and Prognosis. Journal of Marketing and Scientific Organizations (17–38), 20 (20). DOI: 10.14611/minib.20.03.2016.08.


In this paper has been discussed the meaning a human capital is performing in the CSR strategy building and the role of the personnel marketing in this situation. Dynamic changes in the company surroundings extorted a new look on intangible resources. Organizations understood human capital and social competences firmly influence on creating values of the organization, profits generating and achieving a competitive advantage in XXI century. Personnel marketing nowadays is the flagship for the CSR implementation and building a values of modern organization, especially such special like scientific unit.

In this paper we found main values taken by the Central Mining Institute as a crucial for its importance for social responsibility. Analysis was made on the base of the Central Mining Institute experiences in the developing strategic CSR that took account special features of scientific organization.


Safety assessment of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, food and food ingredients, cosmetics, industrial products is very crucial prior to their approval for human uses. Since the commencement of toxicity testing (about 500 years ago, since 1520), significant advances have been made with respect to the 3Rs (reduction, refinement and replacement) alternative approaches. This review is focused on the update in acute systemic toxicity testing of chemicals. Merits and demerits of these advances were also highlighted. Traditional LD50 test methods are being suspended while new methods are developed and endorsed by the regulatory body. Based on the refinement and reduction approaches, the regulatory body has approved fixed dose procedure (FDP), acute toxic class (ATC) method and up and down procedure (UDP) which involves few numbers of animals. In terms of replacement approach, the regulatory body approved 3T3 neutral red uptake (NRU), the normal human keratinocyte (NHK), and the 3T3 neutral red uptake (NRU) phototoxicity test for acute phototoxicity. However, other promising replacement alternatives such as organ on chip seeded with human cells for acute systemic toxicity and 3T3 neutral red uptake (NRU) cytotoxicity test for identifying substances not requiring classification, as well as the in silico approaches are yet to receive regulatory approval. With this backdrop, a collaborative effort is required from the academia, industries, regulatory agencies, government and scientific organizations to ensure speedily regulatory approval of the prospective alternatives highlighted.


New national and international societies that examine sports have been created and developed in Europe as well as on other continents. These societies, which examine the complex phenomena, issues, and questions concerning sports as seen from the different scientific points of view, are rooted in two main research directions: the natural sciences on the one hand, and the social sciences on the other.

The authors of the paper point to the significant and ongoing development of the social sciences of sport. In particular, the authors discuss the development of the sociology of sport, philosophy of sport, psychology of sport, pedagogy of sport, history of physical culture, sports and Olympics, the organization and management of sport, social and cultural foundations of tourism and recreation, social relationships associated with sports training and tactics, as well as the humanistic theories of Eastern martial arts.

The authors have listed several national, continental, and international scientific organizations that unite representatives of the aforementioned disciplines. However, the authors’ main focus is on theoretical and organizational assumptions of the International Society for the Social Sciences of Sport, an organization founded in 2009.

The society’s main objectives are to unite the particular social sciences of sport in one organized and scientific body (while maintaining the existing differences between the sciences); to enable the annual debate and exchange of views on the substantive and methodological matters; as well as to provide joint scientific publications connected with common work of the group and with the journal Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research.

The authors discuss the research and publishing activities of the Polish Society for Social Sciences of Sport, introducing the organization as an example of any future organization that could cooperate with the International Society for the Social Sciences of Sport.


Cities are growing both quantitatively and qualitatively. The quantitative development of a city can be identified with the spatial expansion and changes in the function of certain areas. The city's development, therefore, requires the reconstruction of the spatial layout, but also needs certain capital expenditures, as exemplified by industrial-technology parks (ITPs). ITPs are a combination of the infrastructure function and performance which enable the exchange of information between scientific organizations and entrepreneurs. They are, therefore, a pro-development component of the urban development strategy. The aim of the study is to identify and quantify selected costs and benefits, as well as estimate the effectiveness of establishing certain parks from the point of view of local government units.

Industry parks and technology parks are diverse entities. Their general characteristics and types, based on a review of domestic and foreign literature, are presented in the first part of the work justifying the study. The second part introduces the industrial-technology parks which are present in Poland. In the third part of the study, the specificity of assessing the effectiveness of an industrial-technology park is described. Finally, the fourth part includes an analysis of investing in selected industrial-technology parks; the analysis consists of three phases: the identification of industrial and technological parks, the verification of the industrial-technology park with the legal and practical definition, and cost-benefit analysis. According to the Polish Agency of Information and Foreign Investment (PAIiIZ), industrial-technology parks focus primarily on filling the space with commercially efficient companies using modern technologies, attracting investment and creating jobs. All of these factors are taken into account in the analysis. The analysis is carried out according to the methodology of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of investment projects.

Despite the diversity and dynamics of the structural features of the parks, the analysis confirms that the investment of public funds in industrial and technological parks is generally efficient in terms of socio-economic development.