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References 1. Maier W, Zobel A, Wagner M. Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: Differences and Overlaps. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2006;19(2):165-170. 2. Korn ML. Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: An Evolving Interface. Medscape Psychiatry & Mental Health. 2004;9(2) 3. Lake CR, Hurwitz N. Schizoaffective disorder merges schizophrenia and bipolar disorders as one disease - there is no schizoaffective disorder. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2007;20(4):365-79. 4. Harrow M, et al. Ten-year outcome:patients with schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia and affective disorders and

References: 1. Jarema M, Rabe-Jabłońska J: Psychiatria 2016; wyd. 2: 125-137. 2. Mayo Clinic Staff.: Schizoaffective Disorder 2017; [cytowana 6 czerwca 2019]. Dostępna z: 3. Główny Urząd Statystyczny: Zdrowie kobiet w Polsce w latach 2004-2009. 4. . Food and Drug Administration: Classification of drugs during pregnancy; [cytowana 6 czerwca 2019] 5. Indeks leków Medycyny Praktycznej: 2019. 6. Bulbul F, Copoglu US, Alpak G, Unal A


According to ICD 10, nonorganic hypersomnia is defined as “a condition of either excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep attacks (not accounted for by an inadequate amount of sleep) or prolonged transition to the fully aroused state upon awakening. When no definite evidence of organic etiology can be found, this condition is usually associated with mental disorders”. The severe hypersomnia in the course of schizoaffective disorder is rather a rare phenomenon. The paper presents the case of 41-year-old female patient with severe hypersomnia during the course of the schizoaffective disorder. The course of hypersomnia was severe. The patient slept constantly day and night and was awoken by her family for about three-hour period of time. The duration of hypersomnia was about one year until the onset of treatment. The patient was successfully treated with light therapy that caused gradual resolution of the symptoms of hypersomnia. The patient is also treated as prior to the onset of hypersomnia with antipsychotics and the mood stabilizers for schizoaffective disorder. Since that time there were six-year-period of follow up when the patient was free of any symptoms of hypersomnia.

prevalence was 10–39% and episode prevalence was 15–42%. The studies included a range of psychiatric diagnoses from schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar affective disorder, psychotic depression and obsessive compulsive disorder. Only Lin et al. (1999) and Warner et al. (1994) exclusively explored the side effect in patients with schizophrenia alone. Their point prevalence was 41 and 42% respectively. Figure 1 Literature search and screening Study populations were of both inpatient and outpatient groups. There did not appear to be any significant difference


The aim of the study is to present the results of a 3-year clinico-epidemiological investigation of caustic injury in adults. The study includes 43 patients with acute corrosive ingestion, hospitalized in the Toxicology Clinic, University Hospital “N. I. Pirogov”, Sofia, Bulgaria, for the period 01.01. 2010-31.12.2012. The methods used include: clinical observation and examination, clinical laboratory, imaging, and psychiatric methods and tests. 43 patients between the ages of 22 and 82 with acute corrosive ingestions have been observed. Eleven were male (25.6%) and 32 female (74.4%). All ingestions were intentional. Alkaline agents were used by all of the patients. The severity of poisonings varied from moderate to extremely severe. Different complications were seen in 82% of the cases - severe bleeding, perforation, fistula or/and stricture formation. Two of the patients have undergone surgical intervention - coloesophagoplastic - and have recovered completely. The motivation in different age groups was also studied. Psychiatric comorbidity occurred in patients as depressive and schizoaffective disorder, as well as existential crises. Acute corrosive ingestions by alkaline agents cause severe pathology. The severity and complex character of the injuries require good coordination between different medical specialists.

, schizoaffective disorder, and mood disorders with psychotic features. Am. J. Psychiatry 2001; 158: 122–125. 8. Kokoszka, A., Telichowska-Leśna, A., Radzio R. Kwestionariusz wglądu w schizofrenię—„Moje myśli i odczucia”. Psychiatr. Pol, 2008, 42, 491-502. 9. Gawęda Ł., Buciński P., Staniszewski K. i wsp.: Związki wglądu w chorobę, poczucia wpływu na jej przebieg, stylów radzenia sobie z chorobą z objawami psychopatologicznymi w schizofre-nii. Psychiatria 2008; 5: 124–133. 10. Ćurčić-Blake B., van der Meer L., Pijnenborg G. H., David A. S., Aleman A. Insight and psychosis

(supl. 1/20): 81-83. 14. Lin S.K., Su S.F., Pan C.H. Higher plasma drug concentration in clozapine-treated schizophrenic patients with side effects of obsessive/compulsive symptoms. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 2006; 28: 303-7. 15. Mahendran R., Liew E., Subramaniam M. De novo emergence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms with atypical antipsychotics in Asian patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder: a retrospective, cross-sectional study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2007; 68: 542-5. 16. Sa A.R., Hounie A.G., Sampaio A.S., Arrais J., Miguel E

-controlled trial. Schizophr Res 2007; 90:147-161. 17. Potkin SG, Saha AR, Kujawa MJ, Carson WH, Ali M, Stock E, Stringfellow J, Ingenito GG, Marder SR. Aripiprazole, an antipsychotic with a novel mechanism of action, and risperidone vs. placebo in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2003; 60: 681-690. 18. Kahn RS, Schulz SC, Palazov VD, Reyes EB, Brecher M, Svensson O, Andersson HM, Meulien D. Efficacy and tolerability of once-daily extended release quetiapinefumarate in acute schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled

with Major Depressive Disorder: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Depress Res Treat. 2011; 2011: 470985.Published online 2011 Nov 3. 19. Swoboda E, Conca A, Konig P, Waanders R, Hansen M. Maintenance electroconvulsive therapy in affective and schizoaffective disorder. Neuropsychobiology. 2001;43(1):23-28. 20. Guidance on the use of electroconvulsive therapy, National Institute for Clinical Excellence, Technology Appraisal Guidance 59, London, UK, November; 2005. 21. Lisanby SH, Maddox JH, Prudic J, et al. The effects of electroconvulsive therapy on memory of

(9713): 481-9, 2010. 23. Wannamethee SG, Shaper AG, Whincup PH, Lennon L, Sattar N. Impact of diabetes on cardiovascular disease risk and all-cause mortality in older men: influence of age at onset, diabetes duration, and established and novel risk factors. Archives of internal medicine 171(5): 404-10, 2011. 24. Regenold WT, Thapar RK, Marano C, Gavirneni S, Kondapavuluru PV . Increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among psychiatric inpatients with bipolar I affective and schizoaffective disorders independent of psychotropic drug use. Journal of affective