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Glacier ice structures influence on moraines developement (Hørbye glacier, Central Spitsbergen)
Geomorphological and basic sedimentological investigation of controlled moraine system was carried out at the ice surface and within the moraine complex zone of the Hørbye glacier (Central Spitsbergen). The Hørbye glacier creates controlled moraine chains regarding transversal fractures and longitudinal foliation. The forms parallel to the ice flow direction are represented by medial moraines, whereas transversal ones by thrustmoraines. Both arrangements are clearly visible. However, thrust and shear planes are more effective in creating forms, both on the ice surface and in the moraine complex. The longitudinal landforms are less distinct, moreover they are coarser-grained and worse rounded, in contrast to the material from shear and thrust plains which is finer and better rounded. The study area can be divided into three subzones: clean ice surface, debris covered ice fractures and moraine complex. The outer and inner sandur plain were not taken under consideration. It is suggested that present arrangement of both thrust or shear plains and longitudinal foliation controls formation of foreland relief. This hypothesis has a particular sense in understanding construction of modern sedimentary basins as well as the mechanism of terminoglacial relief formation with regend to ice structure.
At present, concentrations of pharmaceuticals in surface and ground waters are low; however, even low concentrations of certain substances may prove very harmful. One of such pharmaceutical drugs is diclofenac, a popular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). For this reason, it is important to determine its mobility in groundwater and to estimate parameters of migration. Authors conducted column tests for two porous media: an artificial one, consisting of glass granules, and a natural one, i.e., sandur sand obtained from a site north of the city of Poznań (Poland). During the test, impulse breakthrough curves of chloride ions and diclofenac were recorded. The results were used to identify a specific sorption model and to determine values of migration parameters. Solutions of the inverse problem using optimisation methods and of equations of mathematical migration models were carried out in a MATLAB environment. Based on test results, the mobility of diclofenac is shown to be very high and comparable to that of chloride ions. The tests also revealed a slight and irreversible sorption of diclofenac on grains of both porous media.
Chronology of the Last Deglaciation in the Southeastern Baltic Region on the Basis of Recent OSL Dates
The study of the deglaciation chronology in the south-eastern Baltic Region belonging to the outer zone of the last Pleistocene glaciation has a long history. The Finnish investigator H. Hausen (1913) who worked in the north-western portion of the East-European Plain at the beginning of the 20th century was the first to attempt a reconstruction of the course of glacial retreat during the last glaciation. At that time investigators had no physical dating methods and the time scale based on varvometric method, introduced by the Swedish geologist G. de Geer (1912) who divided the deglaciation history of Scandinavia into Daniglacial, Gotiglacial and Finiglacial, each of which had different palaeoglaciological conditions. During last decades different dating methods, including 14C, ESR, luminescence methods and 10Be techniques have been used, but they could not help essentially improve the existing stratigraphical charts and many problems of topical interest in the history of deglaciation have not been solved yet. During last years the first two authors have studied the suitability of OSL method for the geochronological purposes, paying the most attention to the waterlaid sediments. In the first step they have found the most promising genetical varieties of glaciofluvial sediments (glaciofluvial deltas and sandurs) and in this paper they widened the study area to all three Baltic states with close cooperation with Latvian and Lithuanian colleagues. The obtained results demonstrated, that not all mineral grains in the uppermost glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine sediments were fully bleached during the last deglaciation. Probably the older sediments also influenced to the luminescence results. It means, that stratigraphic conclusions based on single dates or their small sets are inadmissible and in each case luminiscence dating requires a verification using other methods.