The impact of the transformation of economic activities and sharp weather and climate changes on the quality of life in rural settlements on peatlands in the Moscow region was analyzed. As theoretical background, an analysis of various interpretations of the concept of the quality of life was carried out, including in the context of sustainable development. The impact of economic and environmental factors of the quality of life in rural settlements on peatlands is considered with respect to their location in the zone of attraction of Moscow. It was concluded that the development of industrialization in the region led to population decline and to increase in the anthropogenic load. This critically increased the vulnerability of peatlands to fluctuations in weather and climate conditions and several times led to serious environmental disasters. At the same time, location in the zone of attraction of Moscow opens up opportunities for improving the quality of life associated with the development of post-industrial recreational use.
References Antipova, E.A., 2008a: Geodemograficheskiye problemy i territorialnaya struktura selskogo rasseleniya Belarusi (Geo-demographic problems and territorial structure of ruralsettlement system of Belarus - in Russian), Minsk: Belarusian State University, p. 327. Antipova, E.A. , 2008b: Demograficheskiy potentsial agrogorodkov kak novoy formi selskich poseleniy Belarusi (Demographic potential of agrotowns as a new form of rural Belarusian settlements - in Russian). In: Agrarnaya economika (Agricultural economics - in Russian, Minsk: Natsionalnaya
The paper deals with the issue of creation of new public spaces in emerging residential areas in rural settlements and small towns. The developers of the new residential zones currently pursue their private interests and the specific rural structure is complemented by isolated residential complexes without relation to the centre of the settlement and structure of the main public spaces. The hypothesis that the efficient residential structure can be achieved even at a higher percentage of active and vibrant public spaces is verified at eleven case studies in three selected settlements (Bernolákovo, Brezno, Chorvátsky Grob – Čierna Voda). The examined proposals (case studies) showed that despite the wide application of social and recreational public spaces and the large percentage of green area per capita, the site coverage coefficient was comparable and the population density was even higher than the current standards of development. In conclusion, it is possible to say, that the creation of public spaces in a residential zone does not adversely affect the efficiency of the new development. On the contrary, it brings a lot of benefits.
Introduction The subject of the research covers the problem of incorporation and morphological changes in former villages on the example of Łódź within its current administrative borders. Studies on the transformation of spatial structures of ruralsettlements are needed from many points of view. Regional research and comparative analyses on this issue provide better opportunities for introducing more efficient ways of urban planning. At the same time, the identification of changes in ruralsettlement patterns, taking into account their directions and strength of
This study is focused on the changing of areas of water bodies in selected villages of the Pilsen Region (Czechia). We researched several different types of rural settlements and three time horizons with the help of old maps, orthophoto maps and GIS tools. To capture the influence of their location within the urban system, we chose 15 places from four categories (inner suburban area, outside suburban area, rural area, periphery rural area) depending on their distance to the core of the Pilsen agglomeration. There is no significant change in the amount of water bodies between the first reference period (1838-1839) and the second period (1957-1963) in the selected settlements. However, the third period (2013-2015) is characterized by the emergence of a large number of small water bodies - swimming pools and garden ponds. Based on the results of our research we identified the declining importance of public water bodies in some of the settlements. However, we have identified a notable prevalence of garden ponds which have a more positive ecological impact than pools. The proportion of private water bodies (covered and uncovered pools and garden ponds) in the total area of water bodies in the rural settlements in most cases is less than 20%, in the suburban settlements up to 100%. Peripheral settlements have a below-average share of these water bodies. The difference between the number of pools in different settlements is related to the proportion of newly built houses there. Although there are relatively fewer pools in rural settlements, the difference compared to the situation in suburban settlements is not pronounced due to the change in lifestyle in rural areas and the change in functions of some villages to recreational areas. Influence of pools on water consumption is dependent on the individual exchange technology of water in swimming pools. Filling of the pool before the season can overload the capacity of the local water supply.
The results of the paper are based on a research project which examines the renewable energy investments carried out in Hungarian rural settlements. The study will focus on the municipality-led renewable energy developments, determining the most important local benefits and the aspects of the local community involvement. Altogether 748 rural settlements have been identified, which have implemented at least one renewable energy project through the Environmental and Energy Operative Program between 2007 and 2013. A questionnaire has been sent out to these municipalities, and 159 full answers have been collected and analysed. We have investigated the importance and presence of local benefits deriving from renewable energy investments, and examined what effort is put into the information and involvement of the local community. The study concludes that although several local benefits occur at local level while implementing renewable energy projects, the effect of direct benefits remain at a low level. Furthermore, it can also be stated, that only moderate effort is put into the issue of local community involvement. The study also determines several major threats that can endanger the successfulness of the previous investments, and prevent the further renewable energy developments at local level.
To date, limited information exists on the distribution of endocrine disrupting compounds in groundwater resources from African rural settlements. In view of this knowledge gap, the present study investigated the concentrations and potential health risks of phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in underground water samples obtained from eight rural settlements in Nigeria, West Africa. The water samples were obtained from domestic drinkable communal wells at Anambra (Mgbaukwu and Umudioka), Lagos (Bariga, Itire and Mushin), and Delta (Agbarho, Ikweghwu and Orhokpokpor) states representing the South-East, South-West and South-South Nigeria respectively. Samples were analyzed for 10 selected chlorinated, nitrogen-containing and alkyl phenolic compounds using gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector technique. At all understudied sites, selected phenolic compounds with the exception of 2-chlorophenol which was below detectable limits at 4 sites (Agbarho, Mgbaukwu, Umudioka site 1 and Mushin) were detected. The concentrations of the phenolic compounds in the samples from the different sites ranged between below detectable limits to 0.0904 ppm. Nonylphenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol were predominant at EDCs in most sites when compared with the other phenolic contaminants. The calculated chronic daily intake (CDI) results for the exposed populations at the communities implies that the level of occurrence and daily intake of 2-nitrophenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2-chlorophenol and bisphenol A were still below their respective oral reference doses. Nonylphenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (risk quotient, RQ > 1) were identified as the major EDC contributors to potential health risk for exposed populations at the communities.
WARSZAWA 2000 Vol. 9
MATHEMATICAL METHOD OF ANALYSING FORMS
OF THE RURALSETTLEMENTS OF BENON JANOWSKI
One of the pioneers in the mathematically based study of forms taken
by ruralsettlements was Benon Janowski, the student of the great Polish
geographer Eugeniusz Romer. The work of Benon Janowski is nowadays
almost completely forgotten, because his activity took place in the period
when Poland did not exist as a sovereign state. His concepts and theories,
which came several decades ahead of the similar
. Zróżnicowanie flor synantropijnych wybranych osiedli wiejskich Borów Tucholskich i Pojezierza Starogardzkiego (północna Polska). Acta Bot. Cassub. 5: 57-69. Kim Y.-M., Zerbe S. & Kowarik I. 2002. Human impact on flora and habitats in Korean ruralsettlements. Preslia 74: 409-419. Kirpluk I. 2011. Najstarsi przybysze we florze ruderalnej opuszczonych wsi Kampinoskiego Parku Narodowego. Acta Botanica Silesiaca 7: 97-112. Kirpluk I. 2012. The most recent alien species of the ruderal flora in the abandoned villages of the Kampinos National Park (Central Poland). Thaiszia J. Bot
Nowadays, topics like natural capital assessment, ecosystem services and green infrastructure have become frequent subjects of a number of national and international projects accomplished on local, regional, national and cross-frontier levels. These projects respond to the deterioration of biotopes due to their fragmentation and degradation as a result of constructions and tourism/recreation. This situation requires an economic assessment of ecosystems from the view point of their capacities to satisfy human necessities with simultaneous conservation of the environmental quality, and the optimal status of landscape diversity both in rural and urban areas. The aim of the Green Infrastructure initiative is to stop the loss of land as an irreplaceable natural resource and to contribute to the inclusion of ecological and sustainability aspects into the spatial planning and regional development in rural and urban areas. Green Infrastructure is the tool that may reduce the loss of ecosystem services connected with future occupation of land and improve functions of land. It may support ecological measures aimed at conservation of agricultural landscape and adoption of measures in the sphere of forest and water economies. Important role in the assessment of ecosystems is played not only by the scientists but also by experts and the public at large. This is the reason why ever more stakeholders possessing knowledge of local territory and personal life experience participate in these projects. Their judgments and views, often bearing information important for the above-mentioned assessment, are applied to proposed measures aimed at the improvement of environmental quality and quality of life in terms of sustainability. This article brings the possible example of how to include a selected sample of stakeholders into the assessment of natural capital and ecosystem services on local level in the frame of Green Infrastructure. The aim of this paper is to analyse attitudes of the involved for the evaluation of natural capital and ecosystem services at a local level by means of structured interviews. Obtained views will be applied for the assessment of ecosystem services and proposals aimed at protection and conservation of natural capital and building of green infrastructure. The research was carried out in the model territory of the rural commune Liptovská Teplička.