Alvin J. Helden, Annette Anderson, John Finn and Gordon Purvis
Department of Agriculture Food and the Marine 2012. “RuralEnvironment Protection Scheme (REPS) Overview.” http://www.agriculture.gov.ie/farmerschemespayments/ruralenvironmentprotectionschemereps/repsandaeosschemes/agri-environmentoptionsschemeaeos/ [Accessed December 21 2012].
Department of Agriculture Food and the Marine 2015. Green, Low-Carbon, Agri-Environment Scheme - GLAS. http://www.agriculture.gov.ie/farmerschemespayments/glas/ [Accessed July 21 2015].
Finn, J.A. and Ó hUallacháin, D. 2012. A Review of Evidence on the Environmental Impact of Ireland
One Rural, two Visions — Environmental Issues and Images on Rural Areas in Portugal
In recent years rural areas, specially the most peripheral and remote ones, have become increasingly perceived and identified as spaces of outstanding environmental quality. This relatively new function of the rural, while widely recognized both socially and institutionally, is to some extent strange to local residents to whom the natural resources and the environmental aspects are mainly perceived from an utilitarian perspective. The exteriority of the measures and policies to preserve rural environment tends to place remote rural areas in a new subaltern position. Correspondingly, the social and institutional construction of rural areas as environmental reserves tends to create a new rural-urban dichotomy which may have important repercussions in terms of the future directions of rural development processes. We aim to discuss the abovementioned aspects, based on empirical evidence from two Portuguese rural areas. We conclude that there are two different visions about the rural — the rural to visit and the rural to live - conveyed respectively by the urban residents and the State and by the local inhabitants.
The objective of this study was to determine the possibility of soil contamination with propagative stages of intestinal endoparasites at different public places (public parks, playgrounds, sandpits, sidewalks, road sides). In a one-year-study, totally 578 dog’s faecal samples from 8 towns (Košice, Trebišov, Veľké Kapušany, Prešov, Snina, Levoča, Zvolen and Trenčín) and 3 villages (Dlhé Stráže, Dravce, Valaliky) were examined for the presence of parasitic germs. 29.9 % of faecal samples were positive. Eight different species of intestinal parasites with following incidence were detected: Toxocara canis (11.9 %), Trichuris vulpis (8.5 %), Ancylostomatidae (8.1 %), Taenia spp. (4.0 %), Toxascaris leonina (3.1 %), Capillaria spp. (1.0 %), Dipylidium caninum (0.2 %) and Coccidia oocysts (0.2 %). Additionally 285 sandpits were examined. Sand samples were collected from Košice (136), Zvolen (38), Trenčín (36), Prešov (30), Veľké Kapušany (24), Snina (15), and village Valaliky (6). The parasitic eggs occurence in the sandpits was as follows: Toxocara spp. (11.8 %), Ancylostomatidae (1.1 %), Taenia type (0.7 %) and Trichuris spp. (0.4 %). The occurrence of Toxocara spp. varied between the urban and rural environments. The highest number of Toxocara spp. was found in village Valaliky (33.3 %) whereas cities showed lesser prevalence (Prešov — 10 %, Košice — 7.4 %, Trenčín — 5.6 %, Zvolen — 5.3 %, Veľké Kapušany — 4.2 %). The epidemiological aspects and health risk factors are also discussed.
Diseases, health status, and mortality in urban and rural environments: The case of Catholics and Lutherans in 19th-century Greater Poland
The aim of the study is to show in the mortality measures calculated for Catholics and Lutherans from 19th-century Greater Poland: 1) stratification dependent on the size of place of residence, 2) stratification dependent on religious denomination in population centres of various size. The data on mortality are drawn from Catholic and Lutheran parish death registers: from Poznań (the poor Catholic St. Margaret's Parish, the wealthy St. Mary Magdalene's Parish, and the Lutheran Holy Cross Parish), small towns such as Leszno (the Lutheran Holy Cross Parish) and Kalisz (the Catholic St. Joseph's Parish) as well as the rural Lutheran parish of Trzebosz and the Catholic parish of Dziekanowice. Stratification in the causes of death and mortality measures among Catholics and Lutherans from 19th-century Greater Poland depends on the size of their places of residence and broadly understood ecological conditions. Smaller deleterious effects of the environment were observed in the rural areas and small towns and, therefore, a relationship between death rate values and religious denominations is more visible in these than in Poznań. The cultural benefits accruing to the Lutherans and Catholics living in 19th century Poznań were insufficient to reduce the high infant death rate.
Jovanka Karadžinska-Bislimovska, Jordan Minov, Sašo Stoleski, Dragan Mijakoski, Snežana Risteska-Kuc and Snežana Milkovska
Environmental and Occupational Health Risks Among Agricultural Workers Living in a Rural Community Near Petroleum Refinery and Motorway in Skopje Region
To assess health risks in agricultural workers associated with environmental exposure to pollutants released from a petroleum refinery and from traffic, we performed a cross-sectional study that included 119 randomly selected subjects divided in two groups. Group 1 included 60 agricultural workers living in a rural community near the petroleum refinery and a motorway overpass, whereas Group 2 consisted of 59 agricultural workers performing similar activities and living in a rural community with no exposure to industrial and traffic pollutants. Risk assessment included a questionnaire, blood pressure measurement, spirometry, laboratory tests, and toxicological analysis. The groups showed a similar prevalence of health problems, with exception of muscle pain in the extremities, headache, and fatigue, which were significantly more common in Group 1. Diastolic blood pressure was higher in Group 1, but not significantly (p=0.057). The same is true for blood carbon monoxide. Significantly higher in Group 1 were blood haemoglobin (p=0.001) and blood lead (p<0.001). Serum cholinesterase activity was similar in both groups. Our findings indicate the need of regular medical exams, ambient monitoring and environmental impact assessment in agricultural population in order to detect individuals at risk and to institute adequate preventive measures.
Dorota Trzcińska, Dorota Świderska, Piotr Tabor and Elżbieta Olszewska
., Czamara A. (1995). Analysis of body posture of children from urban and ruralenvironments. Medycyna Sportowa 43, 13-15. [in Polish]
Pośpiech D. (2000). Posture defects in students aged 6-14 years growing up in diverse environments. In J. Ślężyński (Ed.), Theoretical and practical aspects of human physical activity (pp. 47-52). Katowice: PTNKF AWF Katowice. [in Polish]
Romanowska A. (2009). Change of the child posture under the influence of a school backpack. Wychowanie Fizyczne i Zdrowotne 5, 13-19. [in Polish]
This study is devoted to socio-spatial polarisation with regard to the rural environment in Slovakia. In fact, ongoing polarisation processes do not take place only in the rural-urban continuum, but within every single category as well. This is evident especially in the rural environment, which has begun to change significantly in terms of its structure and to diversify to a greater extent. As a result, some parts of the countryside began to stagnate and decline gradually. These parts of the rural environment can thus be referred to as marginal, peripheral. With respect to the proclaimed diversity of the rural environment, this study focuses on selected rural structures, namely mountain areas, the borderland, and the area at the intersection of those two structures. Generally, these parts of the rural environment are often confronted with the phenomenon of marginality and peripherality, and because of the given local predisposition are even more vulnerable to its manifestations. Taking into account the dynamism and multidimensional character of this phenomenon, we can further assume that its manifestation changes in time and space. With the use of ANOVA, we examine a set of selected indicators of socio-spatial polarisation and verify whether and to what extent this dynamism depends on the character of diversified rural structures.
L. Guardone, M. Magi, M. C. Prati and F. Macchioni
world, and all highlight the importance of studying these parasites both from a veterinary and a public health perspective. This study describes the epidemiology of gastrointestinal and cardio-respiratory helminth infections in dogs living in a ruralenvironment, with possible contact with foxes, in a region that has been scarcely investigated (Liguria, north-west Italy). In fact, foxes can act as a wild parasitic reservoir for pets, with significant implications for public and veterinary health ( Deplazes et al ., 2004 ; Vervaeke et al ., 2005 ; Jenkins et al
What happens once the rogue rides off into the sunset? This cross-genre essay considers the figure of the rogue’s decline and gradual dismemberment in the face of the pressures of the world. Beginning with the “rogue” digits and other body parts lost by the men who surrounded him in his youth—especially his grandfather—Dobson considers the costs of labour and poverty in rural environments. For him, the rogue is one who falls somehow outside of cultural, social, and political norms—the one who has decided to step outside of the establishment, outside of the corrupt élites and their highfalutin ways. To do so comes at a cost. Turning to the life of writer George Ryga and to the poetry and fiction of Patrick Lane, this essay examines the real, physical, material, and social costs of transgression across multiple works linked to rural environments in Alberta and British Columbia. The essay shows the ways in which very real forms of violence discipline the rogue, pushing the rogue back into submission or out of mind, back into the shadowy past from whence the rogue first came. Resisting nostalgia while evincing sympathy, this essay delves into what is at stake for one who would become a rogue.