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adjacent to urban development centres. The Lublin Province constituting the studied area is located at the eastern border of Poland with the EU. It belongs to the least developed regions of the EU (the so-called lagging regions), with clearly visible unfavourable features of peripherality in its various areas ( Eurostat Regional Yearbook 2018 ). The purpose of this work is to characterize the potential for smart development of urban-rural communes of the Lublin Province as potential catalysts for implementation of the smart villages concept. Urban-rural communes, in


Quality of life is an issue taken into account increasingly more often as one of the main elements of the evaluation and in comparisons between countries, regions and communes (local governments). The aim of this article is to show the relationship between quality of life and quality of living in rural communities at varying levels of socio-economic development. The analysis of both aspects yields the opportunity to observe the relationship between objective resources of the local community as well as the level of their socio-economic condition and level of satisfaction of the inhabitants, the latter of which results from, inter alia, their ability to meet specific needs within the local environment. The presented analysis leads to several main conclusions. The first is that the rural residents who participated in the study were characterized by a relatively high satisfaction with their own lives. The main source of their life satisfaction was the family sphere. The greatest source of dissatisfaction was their financial situation. The second conclusion comes from the analysis of their subjective assessment of their quality of living in terms of the local commune. The examined residents overall positively assessed the conditions of living in their community. They were content, first and foremost, with the natural environment and security. The lowest level of satisfaction with living in the commune was associated with such aspects as technical infrastructure, transport links, activities of NGOs and political parties, and the lack of possibilities to exert influence on what is happening in the commune. However, it is difficult to specify general correlations that would clarify the relationship between quality of life and quality of living in rural communities. The regression analysis confirmed the weak link between these phenomena. The final conclusion confirms the thesis of the high heterogeneity and diversity of rural communes in Poland, even within a socially, culturally and economically coherent area of a voivodeship (province).

gminas in the central region of Poland’, Infrastruktura i Ekologia Terenów Wiejskich , II (1), pp. 293–304. FELTYNOWSKI, M. and RZEŃCA, A. (2019), ‘Solecki fund as instrument in the hands of rural development policy makers: the case of rural communes of the Lodz Metropolitan Area in Poland’, [in:] KRAKOWIAK-BAL, A. and VEVERKOVA, M. (eds.), Infrastructure and Environment , Springer, Cham, pp. 263–271. FILIPIAK, B.Z. and DYLEWSKI, M. (2015), ‘Działalność inwestycyjna jednostek samorządu terytorialnego w latach 2008–2013’, Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego

competing stakeholder values. The time frame of the study includes the status as of the end of 2016, when field-inventory-related works were completed. The spatial scope encompasses areas along the administrative borders of the rural communes of Oleśnica. Sustainable development and spatial order as intended by the legislature are, for the authorities’ elusive goal of efficient and comprehensive spatial policy. Once achieved, this goal affects the quality of the residents’ life and the protection of valuable natural resources, while leading to economic development


The article presents the results of the analysis of water needs in agricultural production of the Grybów commune (the district of Nowy Sącz, the Małopolska province). The aim of this study was to determine both the current water needs for agricultural purposes as well as changes in this regard based on structural and production data. The guidelines specified in the Ordinance of the Minister of Infrastructure of 14 January 2002 concerning average norms of water consumption were applied to determine water needs. The average annual water demand of crops together with permanent grassland (meadows, pastures) amounts to 23.7 mln m3, of which about 2.15 mln m3 is for winter wheat, 1.92 mln m3 for potatoes and 17.6 mln m3 for permanent grassland. Significant amounts of water (over 130,000 m3) are used also for watering home gardens and cultivating vegetables in plastic tunnels and greenhouses. Water needs for animals farming reach about 235,000 m3 in a year. Most water is needed for farming the cattle. It is predicted that the demand for water in the agricultural sector of the commune will increase by about 5.5% by 2030. Therefore, the activities monitoring the awareness of water saving and proper water management among the population of the villages are important.

a particular direction of flows has been used to identify migration catchment areas. In the case of rural – urban flows from the entire set of movements from a given rural commune, or rural area into a city, only the maximum rural – urban movement among n movement was selected. In other words, we concentrate on a single movement to a given city. Cities are destinations only for maximum movements ( Fig. 1 ). Therefore, they display the most important migration directions. Fig. 1 Migratory catchment areas – rural areas as migration origins (linear scaling). Source

-Mędelska, 2016 ). Exceptionally, a low level of human capital was confirmed as a factor stimulating local authorities and actors to implement PB in rural communes in Poland. It was confirmed that social/spatial injustice might significantly stimulate social involvement. This should be confronted with findings from Zamboni (2007) , who argued that PB is not a sufficient condition for improvement in governance. However, it might enable residents to redistribute resources more equitably, more in accordance with social/spatial justice values. Interestingly, social/spatial justice

activities of communal offices as exemplified by selected rural communes of Lubelskie Voivodeship. Rozprawy Naukowe Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa im. Papieża Jana Paw- ła II w Białej Podlaskiej 2, 179-194. [in Polish] Rawski M. (2011). Selected difficulties regarding the realisation of a functional aspect in territorial marketing. Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego nr 596, Ekonomiczne Problemy Usług 56, 61-73. [in Polish] Marczak M. (2008). Analysis of tourism promotion in Pomerania communes. Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Rzeszowskiej 249, Zarządzanie i

Spatial Diversification of the Balance on the Labour Market in Rural areas in Poland

The purpose of the study is to present the spatial diversification of the level of the balance on the local labour market in the rural areas. The spatial unit of the analysis is constituted by rural communes (gminas) and the rural areas of the urban-rural communes in Poland according to the administrative division into town and village. This means that the research concerns the spatial diversification observed according to 2,171 units. It was accepted in the research that a balanced labour market occurs where favourable demographic structures are located around the largest regional centres in Poland. This is connected with the development of the communes' non-agricultural economic functions and a strong dependence on urban markets.


Subject and purpose of work: This article aims to identify the spatial diversity of Polish municipal services companies operating pursuant to the Commercial Companies Code. Materials and methods: The data from the database Structural changes of national economy entities in the REGON register was used. To evaluate the spatial diversity in the occurrence of municipal services companies, this article employed an indicator of the number of municipal capital companies per commune. Results: Although there is a clear spatial diversity among municipal services companies, their number in Poland increased significantly during the period 2005-2015. The majority of these companies operate in the most industrialised and urbanised regions. Conclusions: The form of a capital company in the municipal economy sector is the most suitable for a large scale of conducted operations. A small scale of operations, characteristic mainly of rural communes, predisposes them for applying the form of a budgetary establishment.