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Democracy and Economic Development: Disentangling the Effect of Elections and Rule of Law

economic growth,’ Journal of Economic Perspectives , vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 51–69. https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.7.3.51 Rigobon, R. & Rodrik, D. (2005), ‘Rule of law, democracy, openness, and income: estimating the interrelationships,’ The Economics of Transition , vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 533–564. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0351.2005.00226.x Lucas, R. E. (1988), ‘On the mechanics of economic development,’ Journal of Monetary Economics , vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 3–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3932(88)90168-7 Rodrik, D. (2014), ‘Rethinking democracy

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Rule of Law in the United States. Stability is one of the World’s Most Valued Commodities

1 TAMANAHA, Brian. The History and Elements of the Rule of Law, 2012 SING. J. LEGAL STUD. 232 (2012). References (alphabetical order) ADAMS, John. Argument in Defense of the Soldiers in the Boston Massacre Trials , (December 1770). Black’s Law Dictionary, Fifth Edition, pp. 672. Bolling v. Sharpe , 347 U.S. 497 (1954). Center for Law and Military Operations , Rule of Law Handbook: A Practitioner’s Guide of Judge Advocates, [Online] Available at < https://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/pdf/rule-of-law_2011.pdf > Accessed 01

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The EU Concept of the Rule of Law and the Procedures de lege lata and de lege ferenda for its Protection

_10.pdf?sequence=1---amp---isAllowed=y , accessed on 17. 4. 2018. LENAERTS, Koen, MASELIS, Ignace, GUTMAN, Kathleen. EU Procedural Law , Oxford University Press, Oxford 2014, p.p. 158–214 MULLER-GRAFF, Peter-Christian. The Idea and Rule of Law as Foundation of the EU Acquis in: Šišková Naděžda (ed.) From Eastern Partnership to the Association: A Legal and Political Analysis , Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle, 2014. RUFFER, Emil. The Commission’s New Framework or the Old Ingringement Under Article 258 TEU: Which are the Effective Means for

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A Content Analysis of the Rule of Law within Public Governance Models: Old vs. New EU Member States

Elgar. Hintea, C. E., M. C. Profi roiu and T. C. Ticlau. 2015. “Strategic Planning and Public Management Reform: Th e Case of Romania.” Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences 11(SI), 30 - 44. Hoff , K. and J. E. Stiglitz. 2004. “Aft er the Big Bang ? Obstacles to the Emergence of the Rule of Law in Post-Communist Societies.” Th e American Economic Review 94(3), 753 - 763. Hughes, O. E. 1998. Public Management and Administration. London: Macmillan. Hupe, P. L. and T. van der Krogt. 2013

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Rule Of Law – Condition For Economic Development (Republic Of Macddonia)

REFERENCES B. Tamanaha, A Concise Guide To The Rule Of Law, Legal Studies Research Paper Series, September 2007, The Social Science Research Network Electronic Paper Collection, http://ssrn.com/abstract=1012051 ; G. O’Donnell, “Why the Rule of Law Matters”, Journal of Democracy 15, 2004, 33 B. Z. Tamanaha, “The Dark Side оf the Relationship Between the Rule of Law and Liberalism”, NYU Journal of Law & Liberty 2004, 516–519; R. M. Ebeling, Free Markets, the Rule of Law, and Classical Liberalism , The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty – May 2004

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Article 7 TEU: From a Dormant Provision to an Active Enforcement Tool?

Bite, the Bark and the Howl: Article 7 and the Rule of Law Initiatives, in in Jakab András and Kochenov Dimitry (eds), The Enforcement of EU Law against the Member States: Methods against Defiance , OUP, Oxford, 128-144. • Bieber Roland and Maiani Francesca, 2014, ‘Enhancing centralized enforcement of EU law: Pandora’s toolbox?’, Common Market Law Review , LI(4): 1057–1092. • Black Ian and Connolly Kate, 2000, ‘EU leaders urged to keep Haider out’, The Guardian , 29 January 2000, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2000/jan/29/ianblack

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Constitutions and Citizenship: Lessons for African Countries

Journal of International Law & Policy , 2013, Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 149–183. MBAKU, John Mukum. Providing a Foundation for Wealth Creation and Development in Africa: The Role of the Rule of Law. Brooklyn Journal of International Law , 2013, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 959–1051. MBAKU, John Mukum. Judicial Independence, Constitutionalism and Governance in Cameroon: Lessons from French Constitutional Practice. European Journal of Comparative Law and Governance , 2014, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 357–391. MBAKU, John Mukum. Cameroon, Republic of (République du Cameroun

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The Legacy Of Magna Carta And The Rule Of Law In The Republic Of Macedonia

REFERENCES Amendment XXV toward the Constitution of the republic of Macedonia (Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia no.107/205) Barstow Magrow, Daniel. “Magna Carta and the Rule of Law”. American Bar Association, 2015 Breay, Cleare. “Magna Carta: Manuscripts and Myths”. British Library, 2002 Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council, Enlargement Strategy and Main Challenges 2011-2012, Brussels, 2011 Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia (Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia no

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Regional Courts as Judicial Brakes?

Abstract

The article examines how regional integration courts can act as judicial brakes, at a time when “constitutional coups” – leaders staying in power past constitutional time limits or other forms of actions against the spirit if not always the letter of the constitution – are alarmingly common. The article discusses how regional courts can be used to modify or protect national rule of law and the constitutional order from the outside (i.e. from the regional integration aspect) and the extent to which this can be valid particularly to promote a uniform interpretation and application of human rights. Although this trend is visible in Europe, it is more striking, because less expected, on other continents, in particular Africa and the Americas, where the developments take place in less than perfect democratic environments. The article contains evidence from cases dealt with in the various regional courts, supporting that a system of political and judicial oversight, especially in regions with weak or fragile democratic systems, can be a useful addition to national judicial or other mechanisms of protection of rule of law and control of the executive. Action by regional courts helps defeat perceptions of majoritarian politics, which in many countries allow for the winner to take all. Under a system of regional oversight, states become aware of the limits they themselves have set and citizens become aware of their possibilities to challenge political power.

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A Federal Turn? The European Union’s Response to Constitutional Crises in the Member States

References · Alter Karen, 2003, Establishing the Supremacy of European Law: The Making of an International Rule of Law in Europe, Oxford University Press, Oxford · Avbelj Matej and Komárek Jan (eds), 2012, Constitutional Pluralism in the European Union and Beyond, Hart Publishing, Oxford. · Batory Agnes, 2016, ‘Defying the Commission: Creative Compliance and Respect for the Rule of Law in the EU’, Public Administration, XCIV(3): 685-699. · Blokker Paul, 2014, New Democracies in Crisis?, Routledge

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