An effective way to reduce nitric oxide emissions may be to reduce the level of nitrogen fertilization. Specialized formulations such as biostimulators are a good alternative to conventional mineral fertilization. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the application of biostimulation agents (Asahi SL, Kelpak SL, Tytanit) applied against the limited dose of nitrogen (75 kgN·ha−1) on winter wheat ‘Muszelka’, their effect was measured on the parameters: grain yield, protein content, amount of chlorophyll and root mass. No statistically significant changes in yields were observed, but after application of the Asahi SL and Kelpak SL, considerably higher values were found as compared to the controls. It should be emphasised that the applied formulations significantly affected the root mass and chlorophyll content of the leaves. Especially in the case of roots of the plants where the biostimulator Asahi was used in the phase BBCH 37, Kelpak in BBCH 23 and fertilizer Tytanit in BBCH 37. And in the case of chlorophyll objects, where Tytanit was applied in BBCH 37 and 69. In the study, significant correlation was found only between the chlorophyll content and the root mass (r = 0.54).
Quinoa is a gluten-free pseudocereal crop recognized for its exceptional nutritional properties. A 3-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of soil tillage and fertilization on root growth and productivity of quinoa. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with two replicates, two main plots [conventional (CT) and minimum tillage (MT)] and four sub-plots [fertilization treatments: untreated, inorganic fertilization with 100 (N1) and 200 kg N ha−1 (N2), and sheep manure]. Mean weight diameter (MWD) of soil aggregates, total porosity, organic matter and soil total nitrogen increased with the long-term fertilization with sheep manure. The major part of the roots (approximately 70%) is concentrated in the 0-30 cm soil layer. Root length density increased with increased rate of applied nitrogen, and a higher value (1.172 cm cm−3) was found in N2 plots. Additionally, higher root mass density (1.114 mg cm−3) was observed under MT. Plant height and dry weight were clearly affected by fertilization, with higher values obtained in N2 plots. Moreover, it was observed that quinoa cultivated under CT and N2 treatment produced a higher seed yield (2595 kg ha−1). As a conclusion, increasing the levels of applied nitrogen up to 200 kg N ha−1 improves root growth and consequently the yields of quinoa.
Based on the optimal partitioning theory, the comparative assessment of seedling allometry is a common task in retrospective genetic tests and early testing of forest reproductive material. Our hypothesis was that root restriction imposed by the container might hinder or rule out genetic differences in biomass allocation. We grew seedlings of two contrasted provenances of Canary Islands pine in mini-rhizotrons, 60 and 90 cm deep, and alternatively in standard bottom-open 200 cc forest containers. In the mini-rhizotrons, plants from the drier provenance allocated more biomass to roots, especially to the tap root and invested less in needles, both in a biomass and leaf area basis, and this morphological divergence increased between two harvests, undertaken at 57 and 115 days after planting. By contrast, confirming our hypothesis, at the 115 days harvest, the plants grown in standard containers did not exhibited significant differences between provenances for Leaf Mass Fraction, Root Mass Fraction and Leaf Area Ratio. We conclude that the physical constraint for root development imposed by small containers increases the probability of dismissing the genetic effect in biomass allocation when assessing forest reproductive materials at the short term, even when the whole plant growth (total dry weight) might be unaffected.
There are extended agricultural areas in the world that can be utilized only with irrigation for crop production. Improper irrigation may induce unfavourable processes in the soil (e.g. secondary salinization). To investigate this problem existing in Hungary as well, 12 simple drainage lysimeters – which are useful equipment for the investigation of the water and salt balance of the soil – were used in an irrigation experiment in the Research Institute of Karcag. The basic goal was to investigate the possibility of the production of a salt-sensitive crop (green bean) in areas with unfavourable agro-ecological conditions. 6 lysimeters were irrigated with deionized water, while the other 6 with saline water of 1,600 mg/l salt content. We also used a soil conditioner (Neosol) during the experiment. Analysing the effect of the irrigation quality on the plant height of green beans, it can be established that the plants irrigated with deionized water were averagely 5.3 cm taller than the plants irrigated with saline water. Similar tendencies were characteristic of the average biomass (deionized: 93.5, saline: 62.5 g), the average root mass (deionized: 9.5 g, saline: 8.2 g), the number of pods (deionized: 17.1, saline: 11.9), and the pod yield (deionized: 137.9 g, saline: 85.9 g) values. However, all these values can be improved by soil conditioning combined with the optimization of irrigation.
This study examines the influence on growth parameters, in particular the morphological features of the root system, of 1-year-old European beech seedlings cultivated in containers with two different densities. The experiment was conducted in the container nursery in Skierdy (Forest District of Jabłonna) in spring 2011. After 10 months of cultivation in Hiko polyethylene containers, above- and below-ground parts of the seedlings were measured. The measurements of the root system were conducted with a scanner and the WinRHIZO software. No influence due to the seedling density on either shoot height or thickness was observed, but instead the research showed that different seedling densities affected the development of root systems. The mean root thickness and dry mass of the European beech seedlings were significantly higher at the lower density. The influence of seedling density on the development of root mass deserves special attention as it is the most important factor affecting future growth of the seedlings during cultivation. This tendency also suggests that the amount of nutrients allocated to shoot development may be higher in order to improve the efficiency of photosynthesis. At both densities, differences in biomass accumulation affected the root-toshoot ratio. In seedlings cultivated at the lower density, the increased dry root matter of the seedlings resulted in a significant increase in the root-to-shoot ratio. This may cause a potential growth advantage of these seedlings after they are planted and may thus result in a more productive cultivation.
Water erosion has been recognized as a major soil degradation process worldwide. This is of special relevance in the semi-arid areas of South Bulgaria with long periods of drought along with severe rainfall events. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the applicability of Bromus innermis L. and Lotus corniculatus L. for soil protection purposes under different site conditions. The site parameters considered were slope, fertilization and a range of soil physical parameters. The plant parameters were canopy cover, biomass, and root morphological characteristics. The experiment includes plots without and with eleven rates of NPK fertilization on gentle (6o) and steep slopes (12o). It was observed that the effect of fertilization on shoot and root growth was stronger on the gentle than on the steep slopes. The biomass accumulation was more sensitive to N than the PK fertilizer applications. The increase of the root density with increasing fertilization rates was more pronounced for the mass than for length or surface area. A significant effect on root diameter was found only for the variants with the highest N application. Treatments with the highest root mass density on both slopes showed the greatest potential for reducing erosion.
Increasing food demand and decreasing water resources have composed a kind of pressure to find new technologies for efficient use of water and fertilizers in agriculture. Drip irrigation can be able to save irrigation water from 30% up to 50% in case it is properly designed, installed and operated compared to surface irrigation, and it can also enable increasing crop yields and crop quality. In order to get the highest benefits using drip irrigation, some soil data (infiltration rate, soil texture and soil structure), crop characteristics (row space, plant density, canopy cover, root system, crop species, crop variety) and water resources properties (water quality, surface or well water) must be considered in drip system design, management and operation. Fertigation is basically an agricultural technique and application together with water and fertilizer to soil and/or plants. It increases both yield and fertilizer use efficiency; therefore, leaching of nutrients is prevented. In order to utilize fertigation successfully, the four main factors must be considered: (i) the consumption rate of water and nutrients throughout the growth season that result in optimal yields, (ii) response in uptake of different crops to nutrient concentration in the soil and soil solutions, (iii) monitoring for total soil water potential, nutrients concentration in soil solution and % elements in plants as a function of time and (iv) root mass and distribution in the soil for given irrigation regimes and soil types.
Productivity and Root-Crop Quality of Lithuanian Carrot (Daucus Sativus Röhl.) Breeder Lines
The investigation was carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture in 2004-2006. Nine promising Lithuanian breeder lines of carrots: 2030, 2046, 2049, 2056, 2065, 2075, 2084, 2091, 2095, and hybrid Svalia F1were included in our experiment. The following sets of parameters were estimated: plant phenology, morphology (length, diameter and mass of root), yield and biochemical composition (carotene, dry soluble matter, total sugar, nitrates). Carrots were cultivated in sandy or sandy-loam Calc (ar)i - Epihypogleyc Luvisols (LVg-p-w-cc), on a profiled surface in four replications. Multiyear results show that carrot root-crop quality depends not only on genotype but also on soil type and growing conditions. In Lithuania the most popular hybrid root-crops have the same shape, about 18-25 cm length and 3.6-3.9 cm diameter. Thus, for our experiment we chose breeder lines meeting to these popular standards. Breeder lines 2030 and 2075 had the best root shape: root length 18.0-21.0 cm and diameter 3.7-3.9 cm. During three years of observation, we found that breeder line 2056 carrots were large (root mass 172.7 g). Yield analysis showed that the highest total and marketable yield was achieved by breeder line 2030 and Svalia' F1. Carrot breeds 2030, 2091 and Svalia' F1had the best biochemical composition.
The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using slow-release fertilizers under intensive vegetable cultivation. To achieve the set research objective, a field experiment was set up in 2017, where slow-release fertilizer (NPK (%) 20-10-10+4MgO) was applied. The experiment comprised three levels of fertilization with the use of slow-release fertilizers, the control without fertilization, and the control fertilized with conventional fertilizers. The slow-release fertilizer was applied directly under each plant and in rows – approximately 8 cm below the root level. The designed systems were evaluated based on the size of commercial yield, productivity index, agronomic efficiency index, removal efficiency index, and physiological efficiency index. The results obtained in the field experiment indicate that the highest plant yield (54.22 Mg of commercial yield∙ha−1) was obtained at the highest dose of slow-release fertilizers (600 kg∙ha−1 applied in rows approximately 8 cm below the root level). In the case of direct fertilization, in the treatment with the highest dose of slow-release fertilizer, a reduction in yield was observed. The best results, in terms of equalizing the mass of individual roots, were obtained under conventional fertilization. The most favorable value of the productivity index was obtained in the variant where 400 kg∙ha−1 slow-release fertilizer was applied directly, while in the case of row application the best results were obtained at the dose of 600 kg∙ha−1. Celeriac fertilization with slow-release fertilizers under root may result in producing a yield of bigger differences in root mass, compared to conventional fertilization system.
The Effect of Foliar Nutrition with Urea, Molybdenum, Sucrose and Benzyladenine on Yield and Some Organic Compounds of Carrot Storage Roots
The Kazan F1 carrot was cultivated in years 2004-2005 in open-work containers sized 60×40×20 cm filled in with silt loam and located on the open field under shade providing fabric. The following combinations of experiments were arranged: (1) control - without foliar nutrition, and foliar nutrition with: (2) urea, (3) solution of urea+Mo, (4) urea+Mo+BA (benzyladenine BA), (5) urea+Mo+BA+sucrose, (6) BA in the concentration of 5 mg·dm-3 and (7) BA in the concentration of 10 mg·dm-3. In combinations 2-5 the following concentrations of components in solutions were applied: urea and sucrose each in 20 g·dm-3, molybdenum 1 mg·dm-3, benzyladenine 5 mg·dm-3. Foliar nutrition was applied three times. In both years of study the greatest mass of storage roots and whole plant (haulm + root) was determined after spraying with benzyladenine in 5 mg·dm-3 concentration. Plants with urea+Mo+BA+sucrose foliar nutrition were characterized by a comparable mass of roots and whole plant but only in 2005. In both years of study plants treated with urea only had the lowest root mass and the highest content of phenolic compounds and the lowest (in 2004 and the means from 2004-2005) content of soluble sugars in roots. Foliar nutrition with urea+Mo+BA+sucrose and spraying with benzyladenine exclusively in both applied concentrations caused a significant increase in the content of sugars (in 2004 and the means from 2004-2005) as well as carotenoids (except for combination no. 7 - in 2005 and the means from 2004-2005) in storage roots.