The FDM-A Method as Applied to Evaluate the Rolling-Element Spin and Misalignment of Bearing Support Elements
Some selected issues on the continuity of motion of rolling elements observed with the FDM-A1 diagnostic method  have been given consideration. A formula for the ratio of angular velocities of the cage and the bearing journal during the process of perfect rolling (i.e. with no spins of rolling elements against the bearing race) has been proposed. The ratio has been labelled by the Authors as a ‘coefficient of the rolling’. Included are results of the computer-aided simulation of how changes in the geometry of some components of a rolling bearing affect dynamic properties thereof. A simple method to conduct preliminary checks of the correctness of the rolling motion of rollers of a rolling-element bearing has also been mentioned. This method has been successfully used by the Authors. Types of the rolling characteristics resulting from the tests with the FDM-A method have been described and correlated with particular types of mechanical failures to the rolling-element bearings and the compressor-turbine sub-system of a turbine engine.
The FDM-A and FDM-C Methods as Applied to Detect and Monitor too Large Interference Fits of Shafts into Rolling-Element Bearings
The paper has been intended to present performance tests with the FDM-A and FAM-C diagnostic methods based on the application of analyses of generators' frequency modulation. Both the methods have been used to detect and monitor too tightly fitted rolling-element bearings (i.e. bearings that show too large interference fits) in bearing nodes of turbine jet engines. Special attention has been paid to observations of the rolling motion of individual rolling elements and flexibility of motion of the bearing cage. Results of conducted tests and diagnosing work allow us to state that as soon as a too tight fit arises, the first and the most important effect observed with the FDM-A method is the relative stochastic differentiation of flexibility of motion of particular rolling elements. The phenomenon observed with this method is instability of the bandwidth of a characteristic set of a given rolling-element bearing.
The Monitoring of the Bearing Joints with Excessive Axial Clearances Using the FAM-C and FDM-A Methods
The intended aim of the paper is to discuss issues resulting from the observation of thee bearing support elements/components in single-shaft turbine engines with excessive axial clearances. Described are parameters and symptoms of such a condition, probable hazards, as well as capabilities of determining it with the FDM-A1 and FAM-C2 methods. Presented are hypotheses formulated by the Authors on subsequent stages of the wearout of bearing support elements/components in an aircraft turbojet engine, which lead to that excessive axial clearances start to arise. Theory of the issue has been completed with results of diagnostic examination of engines and data from the mechanical inspection of the engines after their disassembly.
The Monitoring of the Bearing Nodes with Excessive Radial Clearances Using the FAM-C and FDM-A Methods
The paper has been intended to present findings resulting from the monitoring of the bearing support elements with increased radial clearances with the FAM-C1 and FDM-A2 methods. The role the lubricant film plays in this type of the rolling-elements' wear has been described. Discussed are symptoms, parameters, and hazards to the resonant state in bearing nodes, as well as capabilities of diagnosing them with the FAM-C and FDM-A methods. Hypotheses about subsequent stages of the wearing process in aircraft turbojet engine's bearing support assemblies, including how the resonant state occurs, have been presented. The mechanism of the resonance in rolling-element bearings has been described, with particular attention paid to the effects of gyrostatic moments upon the bearing support elements, both in micro- and macro-scale. Theoretical analyses have been supplemented with findings resulting from the diagnostic work carried out by the Authors, and with data from the mechanical verification of engines in the course of the authorised dismantling thereof.
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