Łukasz Herezy, Dariusz Janik and Krzysztof Skrzypkowski
Upon closure of the Kazimierz Juliusz hard coal mine and abandonment of open-end mining in the Wieczorek hard coal mine, longwall mining now accounts for nearly 100% of coal mined underground in Poland. Longwall systems are proven and highly effective as long as the appropriate mining machines are selected to be operated under the local geological and mining conditions. The primary consideration is the selection of powered roof support system, and its interactions with the rockstrata need constant monitoring. In the Polish hard coal mines
The paper discusses selected maps of rock strata which exemplify the evolution stages of presentation methods of cartographic data concerning the geological structure of selected countries (France, Great Britain and Germany) which in the first half of the nineteenth century constituted the leaders of the field. The results of geologists’ work are used to present the content of maps, provide explanations and showcase the methods and techniques chosen by the maps’ creators. The analysed maps are accompanied by geological writings which contain descriptions of the chronological order within rock formations and strata defined on the basis of fossils, methods of recreating the geological history of individual regions, and attempts of compiling the acquired knowledge and using it to describe larger areas. The author discusses also two maps of Europe published in the mid-nineteenth century, which are the result of cooperation and research achievements of geologists from different countries.
Tadeusz Majcherczyk, Zbigniew Niedbalski and Łukasz Bednarek
An overall scheme of the research station is presented in Figure 1 . Due to the varied conditions occurring in mining excavations and the type of measurements, the presented scheme was subject to slight modifications. Each measurement station was constructed in the face of the drilled excavation, and readings from the measuring devices were obtained at about 4-week intervals, after the completion of the drilling also.
Overall scheme of the measurement station.
In order to determine the geomechanical properties of rockstrata, core