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River runoff is not only a crucial part of the global water cycle, but it is also an important source for hydropower and an essential element of water balance. This study presents a system-theory-based model for river runoff forecasting taking the Hailiutu River as a case study. The forecasting model, designed for the Hailiutu watershed, was calibrated and verified by long-term precipitation observation data and groundwater exploitation data from the study area. Additionally, frequency analysis, taken as an optimization technique, was applied to improve prediction accuracy. Following model optimization, the overall relative prediction errors are below 10%. The system-theory-based prediction model is applicable to river runoff forecasting, and following optimization by frequency analysis, the prediction error is acceptable.
Alexander A. Volchek, Ivan Kirvel, Sergey Parfomuk and Roza Makhambetova
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Changes of total annual runoff distribution, high and low discharges in Latvian rivers
The paper examines climate change impacts on the hydrological regime of nineteen different river basins in Latvia. Hydrological data series for the period of 1951-2006 were analysed for river basins of four hydrological districts: Western, Central, Northern and Eastern. Climate change has influenced the temporal and spatial distribution of total annual river runoff and high and low flows in Latvia at the turn of century. The results confirm the hypothesis that the main tendency in the run-off change is a decrease in spring floods and increase in winter. Generally, statistically insignificant long-term trends were observed for summer and autumn.
Lina Bagdžiūnaitė-Litvinaitienė and Andrius Litvinaitis
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Jin Huang, Wunian Yang, Li Peng and Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf
The amount of eco-water resources reflects the land surface water conservation capability, and the underlying surface condition in the hydrologic cycle. In the upper Minjiang River Basin, the amounts of eco-water resources were retrieved from remotely sensed data during 1992 to 2005. Through regression analysis between the retrieved eco-water data and the climate hydrological data mainly including the temperature, the precipitation, and the runoff in the same period, the model of eco-water driving force affecting the evolvement of runoff was established. The accuracy analysis indicates that the model can well describe the relationship between dry season runoff and its driven factors, the measured data validation proves that the model has high precision and good practicability. The eco-water remote sensing inversion provides a valid method to quantify the land surface water conservation capability, and suggests an interesting approach for the driving function quantitative researches of underlying surface factor in the hydrologic cycle.
Zuzana Štefunková, Kamila Hlavčová and Milan Lapin
changing environment. Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, 4, 1, 190-196.
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Kostka Z., Holko L., 2001: Impact of vegetation changes on riverrunoff in a small mountain catchment. Publication of National Climate Programme of the Slovak Republic, 10,SHMI, ME SR, Bratislava, 82-93.
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Andrey Panin, Grzegorz Adamiec, Khikmatulla Arslanov, Maria Bronnikova, Vladimir Filippov, Elena Sheremetskaya, Natalya Zaretskaya and Elya Zazovskaya
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 Sidorchuk A, Panin A and Borisova O, 2009. Morphology of river channels and surface runoff in the Volga River basin (East European Plain) during the Late Glacial period. Geomorphology 113(3–4): 137–157, DOI 10.1016/j.geomorph.2009.03.007. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2009.03.007
 Sidorchuk AY, Panin AV and Borisova OK, 2012. RiverRunoff Decrease in North Eurasian Plains during the Holocene