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Abstract

This article examines the prevalent state of river ecosystems in the forest-steppe area of Ukraine with special focus on preservation methods and revitalisation of river ecosystems in the coastal territories.

Schmutz Stephan und Sendzimir Jan (Herausgeber), 2018 . 571 Seiten, 123 Abbildungen, davon 82 in Farbe . Aquatic Ecology Series, Springer, Cham , Schweiz . Gebunden, Preis: 49,99 € , 978-3-319-73249-7 (Hardcover), 9783-319-73250-3 (eBook). Das von Univ.-Prof. Dr. Stephan Schmutz (Institut für Hydrobiologie und Gewässermanagement der Universität für Bodenkultur Wien) und Dr. Jan Sendzimir (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg) im Springer Verlag herausgegebene Buch „River Ecosystem Management“ behandelt auf 571 Seiten in 29

Abstract

This paper presents results of the studies of ciliate assemblage in benthos of lowland river influenced by sewage discharged from the municipal wastewater treatment plant. During the presented research the 47 ciliate species, including 45 species from the benthos of the river and 18 from the activated sludge of aeration chamber were identified. Only two species registered in the activated sludge were not observed in the river. Against the background of the lowest number of species in the point located in the distance of 50 m below the discharge of sewage the maximum amount and biomass of these species were observed. Whereas, 200 m below the discharge the decrease in number and biomass of ciliate to the level noted for location before the discharge was observed. Thus, generalizing, one may state that influence of municipal WWTP sewage discharge for ciliate assemblage in the river’s benthos was clearly visible but local.

Abstract

For the first time, an analysis of structural damage of the peripheral blood erythrocyte nucleus in Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758) was carried out for the rivers of the north-western region of Ukraine. The effect of the hydrochemical regime on the formation of cytogenetic disturbances of the representatives of this species was also clarified. It was observed that during 2013–2017, the content of phosphates, suspended solids, fluorides, iron, copper, zinc, manganese, nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen in the surface waters of rivers most significantly exceeded the current quality standards. The average frequency of nuclear disorders of peripheral blood erythrocytes R. rutilus from the studied hydrosystems is 5.25 ± 0.29 ‰ (p < 0.01), with a noticeable excess of the level of spontaneous mutations in the older age groups of fish. In all analyzed samples of R. rutilus, among the total number of identified structural disorders of the nucleus, the largest share is made up of red blood cells from the micronucleus (from 40.0 to 62.0 %), which is evidence of cytogenetic disturbances in the body of fish. At the same time, disturbances of erythrocyte blood of roach from small rivers are on average 1.3 times (or 21.9 %) higher compared with individuals from medium-sized rivers. The formation of cytogenetic disturbances in R. rutilus under the conditions of the hydrochemical regime of rivers is described by a close (r = 0.99 at p < 0.003) multifactorial regression dependence. More important regressive coefficients of the dependency are acquired by such biogenes (NH4+, NO3−, PO4−) and toxicants (Cu2+, Zu2+, Mn2+, F2) in the background of oxygen regime peculiarities (COD, BOD5, O2).

Abstract

This article is based on a literature review and attempts to highlight the harmful effects of forest soil erosion on aquatic ecosystems with particular emphasis on ichthyofauna. We focus on the phenomena of excessive soil erosion caused by forest management practices and forest roads, subsequent sediment runoff as well as silting of watercourses and their impact on fish. Among others, the direct influence of the suspended sediments on fish reproduction, egg incubation, respiratory processes, growth and immunity, as well as indirect effects on habitat and migration are discussed. The authors’ intention is to draw attention to this important and underestimated aspect of forest management in Poland. The aim of this publication is to bring about changes in the management of commercial forests that will minimize the erosion of forest soils, formation of high levels of suspended solids in rivers and in turn limit their negative impact on aquatic ecosystems.

.J., Sabater S., 2010: Understanding effects of global change on river ecosystems: sci ence to support policy in a changing world. - Hydrobiologia, 657: 3-18. Strickland J.D.H., Parsons T.R., 1972: A practical handbook of seawater analysis. - Bulletin of the fisheries research board of Canada, 1: 28-34. Suomen Standardisoimisliitto, 1980: Metal content of water, sludge and sediment determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Principles and practical nstructions, Standard SFS 3044. - Helsinki. Vodogrecki V.E. (ed.), 1972: Resursy poverxnostnyx vod SSS R. Karelija i

− Algal diversity dynamics, ecological assessment, and monitoring in the river ecosystems of the eastern Mediterranean, New York, USA: Nova Science Publishers, 363. 8. Barinova S. S., Medvedeva L. A. and Anissimova O. V., 2006 − Diversity of algal indicators in environmental assessment, Pilies Studio, Tel Aviv, Israel, 498. (in Russian) 9. Barinova S. and Tavassi M., 2009 − Study of seasonal influences on algal biodiversity in the River Yarqon (central Israel) by bio-indication and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), Turkish Journal of Botany, 33, 353-372. 10

Abstract

The strong negative anthropogenic pressure on the River Bregalnica resulted in the increase of pollution in the river ecosystem. The aim of this study was to evaluate if aquatic pollutants generate genotoxic effects in barbel (Barbus peloponnesius). Thirty individuals were collected from three localities along the river: one control site and two locations in the middle and lower course of the river with the presence of different pollution sources. Blood smears were stained with May-Grünwald/Giemsa method and the frequency of micronuclei, vacuolated nuclei, binuclei, blebbed nuclei and notched nuclei expressed in per mill was recorded. In fish collected from the control site, the investigated erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities revealed lowest values compared to polluted sites. In general, significantly higher values for erythrocyte deformations, including micronuclei, were noted in the middle and lower part of the river. Significantly higher values of vacuolated and blebbed nuclei were detected in fish from the middle course of the river, while at the lower course the frequencies of occurrence of micronuclei and notched nuclei were significant compared with control site. The middle course of the River Bregalnica has more diverse pollutants compared to the lower course, and consequently the highest frequency of all nuclear deformations was found in barbel from the middle course of the river. Obtained results suggest that pollutants draining into the Bregalnica river ecosystem display a genotoxic effect on the local barbel population.

Abstract

This study aimed at examining the impact of oil pollution from artisanal oil refineries on the Oturuba river ecosystem using active river bottom sediment. Specific objectives included to determine the level of hydrocarbons and trace metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, V and Mg) in the sediments and to relate this with general ecosystem health. The study found elevated concentrations of both hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the range above most sediment quality guidelines exceeding the respective Threshold Effects Level and Probable Effects. Level guideline values and occurring at levels where impairment to biological communities is certain an d where toxicity levels can lead to negative impacts on benthic animals or infaunal communities. Heavy metal geochemical accumulation index and potential ecological risk analysis also returned anomalously high concentrations in the range of very highly polluted sediment environments with very high ecological risk indices, thereby ranking the Oturuba Creek as one of the most polluted coastal river systems in the world.

Abstract

River landscapes represent key areas of great importance to human society as they perform many functions and provide valuable services. Traditionally, these areas have been perceived as geomorphological phenomena characterised by specific soil conditions, hydrological regimes and unique habitats. Due to the availability of detailed data, it is possible to perform a spatial delineation of river landscapes by interpreting these data using several different approaches. The results of these different approaches can vary considerably, since it is particularly challenging to define the river landscape along small watercourses for which the availability of suitable data is limited. The main aim of this study is to analyse the various methodological approaches that may be used to define the river landscapes of small streams, and to evaluate the efficiency of those approaches that can be applied in nature and landscape conservation. Two medium-sized catchments in the Czech Republic were selected as the study areas in order to ensure different natural conditions and degrees of anthropogenic pressure. As a result, an approach based on combining soil characteristics and topographic information is considered the most appropriate solution to delineate the river ecosystem.