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The problem of physiological gait stereotype restoration in patients with post-stroke central hemiparesis remains relevant to this day. This is primarily associated with high risk of falls in this category of patients. At this point, there is a wide variety of methods related to exercise treatment and robotised correction or restoration of impaired gait against the background of post-stroke hemiparesis. At the same time, the problem of management of talipes equinovarus associated with this syndrome remains quite complex and not completely solved. We have analysed existing methods of talipes equinovarus correction with different levels of evidentiality.


Introduction. The provision of adequate health care for a successively growing group of geriatric patients requires taking into account many factors in order to preserve and/or improve their overall health and the related functional capacity. Its crucial aspects include the ability to safely change position and locomotion, as well as the severity of discomfort from the osteoarticular system.

Aim. The objective of the present study was to assess the impact of comprehensive ambulatory rehabilitation including tailored endurance training, preceded by an ergospirometry test, on indicators showing the risk of falls and the severity of pain symptoms of patients aged 60 and over, receiving health services at the Outpatient Healthcare Home (DDOM).

Material and methods. The study involved 60 seniors during their rehabilitation cycle implemented as part of the services provided to patients at DDOM of the W. Chodźko Institute of Rural Health in Lublin. The tests were carried out in the test-retest model on the first and last day of the kinesiotherapy cycle. The Tinetti scale of the risk of falls, balance and walk and Visual Analogue Scale of the severity of pain sensations (VAS) were utilized in the research. The patient rehabilitation program at the DDOM included adapted systemic kinesiotherapy (endurance training with a load determined according to individual exercise capacity, as determined on the basis of the ergospirometry test) and local kinesiotherapy as well as physical therapy adapted to the needs resulting from the condition of the musculoskeletal system.

Results. After completing the rehabilitation cycle, the patients obtained higher scores, compared to the tests carried out before the beginning of the rehabilitation cycle, in the scales of Tinetti Questionnaire. There were also lower results of the respondents in VAS scale used to assess the severity of pain sensations.

Conclusions. As a result of the rehabilitation program applied, DDOM patients simultaneously obtained the desired changes in minimizing the risk of falls, improving the ability to maintain balance and fitness while walking, as well as reducing the severity of pain sensation.


A gradual loss of function in the balance system may begin in the fourth decade of life. The effects of this process become visible in old age, when problems with postural stability contribute to falls, making it an important social problem. Early detection of this dysfunction is essential for minimizing the risk of age-related falls, one of the main causes of hospitalization or even death in older adults.

The aim of this study was to evaluate somatic factors that may result in the deterioration in postural stability and determine the age range in which the first changes in stability occur. The study included healthy non-sporting adults aged from 20 to 70 years. Four tests based on the Biodex Balance System were used to determine static postural stability, dynamic postural stability, risk of falling and stability limits.

The obtained results showed that dysfunctions of dynamic balance appeared significantly earlier than static balance dysfunctions, i.e. as early as at 50 years of age, and then gradually increased. Higher BMI and the percentage and absolute fat content significantly increased the risk of falls and also adversely affected the results of dynamic stability tests.


Arms swing during standing back somersaults relates to three different “gymnastics schools”, each is considered “optimal” by its adepts. In the three cases, technical performance, elevation and safety differ. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the mechanical variables of three different arms swing techniques in the performance of a standing back tucked somersault. Five high-level male gymnasts (age: 23.17±1.61 yrs; body height: 1.65±0.05 m; body mass: 56.80±7.66 kg) randomly performed standing somersaults under three conditions, each following a different arms’ swing technical angle (270°, 180° and 90°). A force plate synchronized with a three dimensional movement analysis system was used to collect kinetic and kinematic data. Significant differences were observed between somersaults’ performance. The back somersault performed with 270° arms swing showed the best vertical displacement (up to 13.73%), while the back somersaults performed with 180° arms swing showed a decrease in power (up to 22.20%). The back somersault with 90° arms swing showed the highest force (up to 19.46%). Considering that the higher elevation of the centre of mass during the flight phase would allow best performance and lower the risk of falls, this study demonstrated that optimal arms’ swing technique prior to back tucked somersault was 270°.

Back swing connections during gymnastics acrobatic series considerably influence technical performance and difficulties, particularly in the back somersault. The aim of this study was to compare the take-off’s kinetic and kinematic variables between two acrobatic series leading to perform the backward stretched somersault (also called salto): round-off, flic-flac to stretched salto versus round-off, tempo-salto to stretched salto. Five high level male gymnasts (age 23.17 ± 1.61 yrs; body height 1.65 ± 0.05 m; body mass 56.80 ± 7.66 kg) took part in this investigation. A force plate synchronized with a two dimensional movement analysis system was used to collect kinetic and kinematic data. Statistical analysis via the non-parametric Wilcoxon Rank-sum test showed significant differences between the take-offs’ variables. The backswing connections were different in the take-off angle, linear momentum, vertical velocity and horizontal and vertical displacements. In conclusion, considering that the higher elevation of the centre of mass in the flight phase would allow best performance and lower the risk of falls, particularly when combined to a great angular momentum, this study demonstrated that the optimal connection series was round-off, flic-flac to stretched salto which enabled the best height in the somersault. Analysis of the results suggests that both connections facilitate the performance of single and double (or triple) backward somersaults with or without rotations around the longitudinal axis. Gymnasts could perform these later while gaining height if they chose the round-off, flic-flac technique or gaining some backward displacement if they choose the round-off, salto tempo.

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