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Guideline for Management of Primary Aldosteronism: What is New in the 2016 Update? Int J Endocrinol Metab Disord. 2016;2(3). 9. Kalyagin AN, Beloborodov VA, Maksimova TN. Symptomatic arterial hypertension against the background if primary aldosteronism. Arterial hypertension. 2017;23(3):224–30. Russian. 10. Zavatto A, Concistrè A, Marinelli C, Zingaretti V, Umbro I, Fiacco F, et al. Hypokalemic rhabdomyolysis: a rare manifestation of primary aldosteronism. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol

Dis. 1999; 179:275-8. 15. Halow KD, Harner RC, Fontenelle LJ. Primary skin infections secondary to Vibrio vulnificus: the role of operative intervention. J Am Coll Surg. 1996; 183: 329-34. 16. Kuo YL, Shieh SJ, Chiu HY, Lee JW. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by Vibrio vulnificus: epidemiology, clinical findings, treatment and prevention. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007; 26:785-92. 17. Fernandez A, Justiniani FR. Massive rhabdomyolysis: a rare presentation of primary Vibrio vulnificus septicemia. Am J Med. 1990; 89:535-6.

REFERENCES 1. Vanholder R, Sever MS, Erek E, Lameire N. Rhabdomyolysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 2000;11:1553-1561. 2. Petejova N, Martinek A. Acute kidney injury due to rhabdomyolysis and renal replacement therapy: a critical review. Critical Care 2014;18:224-231. 3. Panizo N, Rubio-Navarro A, Amaro-Villalobo JM, et al. Molecular mechanisms and novel therapeutic approaches to rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury. Kidney Blood Press Res 2015;40:520-532. 4. Williams J, Thorpe C. Rhabdomyolysis. Continuing Education in Anaesthesia, Critical Care &Pain J 2014

References 1. Bagley WH, Yang H, Shah KH. Rhabdomyolysis. Intern Emerg Med. 2007;2(3):210-8. 2. O'Connor FG, Deuster PA. Rhabdomyolysis. In Cecil Medicine, Goldman L, Ausiello D, Eds., chapter 114, Saunders Elsevier: Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 23rd edition, 2007. 3. Remuzzi G, Perico N, DeBroe ME. Acute kidney injury, in Brenner and Rector's the Kidney, B. M. Brenner, Ed., chapter 29, Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia: Pa, USA, 8th edition, 2007. 4. Naka T, Jones D, Baldwin I et al. Myoglobin clearance by super high-flux hemofiltration in a case of severe

References Betten DP, Richardson WH, Tong TC, Clark RF. Massive honey bee envenomation-induced rhabdomyolysis in an adolescent. Pediatrics 2006;117(1):231-5. Youichi YA, Kentaro MA, Takao SA, Yoshiaki OA. Cutaneous hemorrhage or necrosis findings after Vespa mandarinia (wasp) stings may predict the occurrence of multiple organ injury: A case report and review of literature. J Clin Toxicol 2007;45(7):803-7. Irvine R. The twin-coil artificial kidney in the treatment of acute oliguric renal failure. N Z Med J 1962;(3):184-90. Kini PG, Baliga M, Bhaskaravad N


Cocaine is a natural alkaloid extracted from the leaves of the South American plant Erythroxylum coca or synthesized chemically. After cannabis, it is the second most frequently abused recreational substance worldwide. Cocaine can affect every tissue and organ within the human body, including the kidneys, causing tissue ischemia due to vasoconstriction, endothelial dysfunction and damage, procoagulant activity and oxidative stress with subsequent ischemic infarctions and fibrosis. The renal changes in cocaine abuse and addiction are due to rhabdomyolysis, ischemic, hypertensive, and inflammatory changes with the development of cell proliferation and fibrosis. The authors present three patients with cocaine-associated renal damage and discuss the underlying mechanisms of cocaine-induces tissue changes.

low-efficacy drugs, treatment with high-efficacy statins has been associated with a 13% increased hazard for developing severe renal failure, which remained consistent across specific populations at risk (ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and CKD).[ 29 ] Increased risk for rhabdomyolysis in CKD Statins are associated with skeletal muscle complaints, ranging from mild serum creatine kinase elevations and myalgia to severe muscle weakness, muscle cramps, myositis and rhabdomyolysis.[ 30 ] Amongst others, CKD is a common risk factor for the development of statin

. 1998;9(2):322-32. PMID:9527411. Reis ND, Better OS. Mechanical muscle-crush injury and acute muscle-crush compartment syndrome: with special reference to earthquake casualties. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2005;87(4):450-3. doi:10.1302/0301-620X.87B4.15334 PMID:15795190. Malinoski DJ, Slater MS, Mullins RJ. Crush injury and rhabdomyolysis. Crit Care Clin. 2004;20(1):171-92. doi:10.1016/S0749-0704(03)00091-5 PMID:14979336. Sever MS. Rhabdomyolysis. Acta Clin Belg Suppl. 2007;(2):375-9. PMID:18284003. Robert N, Reddix JR and Robert AP. Crush Syndrome presenting three days

., 2010 ), but not Israeli ( Eynon et al., 2011 ), elite power athletes. In contrast, the C allele was found to be associated with eccentric exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage and rhabdomyolysis ( Funghetto et al., 2013 ; Yamin et al., 2008 ). Interestingly, the prevalence of this SNP has not been studied in swimming, a sport in which fitness and muscle strength ( Bloomfield et al., 1985 ) play a key role in elite performance, but exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis is very rare ( Galvez et al., 2008 ; Stella and Shariff, 2012 ). Therefore, the aim of the present

. Kristensen KE, Zhu HJ, Wang X, Gislason GH, Torp-Pedersen C, Rasmussen HB, et al. Clopidogrel Bioactivation and Risk of Bleeding in Patients Cotreated With Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors After Myocardial Infarction: A Proof-of-Concept Study. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2014; 96(6): 713–22. 108. Mrotzek SM, Rassaf T, Totzeck M. Ticagrelor Leads to Statin-Induced Rhabdomyolysis: A Case Report. Am J Case Rep 2017; 18: 1238–41. 109. Kido K, Wheeler MB, Seratnahaei A, Bailey A, Bain JA. Rhabdomyolysis precipitated by possible interaction of ticagrelor with high