Aleksandra Anđelković, Nada Barac and Marija Radosavljević
The importance of distribution channels comes from the increasingly sophisticated consumer demands, producer’s focus on core competences, and the contribution of the distribution channels to achievement of goals at the national economy level. Due to the fact that intermediaries of distribution channel have the role to link producer and consumers, the results of their functioning have a direct impact on the mentioned partners in the channel. Therefore, the efficiency of the intermediaries directly affects the performance of related partners, producers and consumers. Retailers, as intermediaries in the channel, attracted great attention due to their leadership position and power, which proceed from direct communication with consumers. In this regard, the objective of the research presented in this paper is the analysis of the importance of distribution channels, from partners’ point of view, as well as from macro aspect, with special reference to the retailers, as the primary participants in the distribution channel, in the Republic of Serbia. As indicators of performance, authors use Return of Sale (ROS) and Return of Equity (ROE). By applying the regression analysis, the authors examine whether the performance and role of retail chain leaders in distribution channels depends on the size of the sales network, or the number of sales facilities. The survey shows that the largest retail chains in the Republic of Serbia are performing below the average for the retail sector, and that the size of their retail network has a significant impact on the achieved results.
The paper deals with an analysis the growing presence of international retail enterprises in the Central European countries of the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia. Results of the research show that there are differences between the Polish market and the remaining two. The differences are in the scale of investments, the investors’ geographic origin, the number of stores within the network of the so called modern distribution channels (hyper- and supermarkets and discount stores). The diversity of location strategies used by Western European retail enterprises in the Central European markets is also shown, beginning with the methods of entering new markets (organic growth, acquisition of existing chains, franchising) and ending on the degree of concentration of retail stores in the largest cities of the three countries.
Purpose: Developing a strong, favourable employer brand of a retail chain may be regarded as an important means of creating a competitive advantage. Retail chains should attract personnel with desired competence required for their particular purposes. The retail sector in Poland is perceived as a strongly disliked employer. Thus employer branding can be an important element of strategies adopted by retail chains operating in Poland.
The main objective of this paper is to analyse the development of employer branding strategies implemented by selected global retailers operating in Poland and the impact of such strategies on their respective competitive positions in the Polish market. The time frame for the analysis is the period of 2009–2014.
Research design and methods: In addition to a review of the literature on the development of employer brands, this paper includes a case study of a few global retail chains operating in Poland.
The paper is based on the assumption that retail chains pursue competitive advantage by developing employer brand strategies.
Implications and recommendations: A continued engagement in strategic activities in the field of employer branding is very important for retail chains. Decision makers need to pay special attention to the promotion of their retail chains as a good workplace, using employer branding techniques.
In modern vertical marketing systems (i.e., in grocery sector), the greatest power is demonstrated by retail chains, and producers depend thereupon. This paper analyzes vertical marketing systems and the role of retailing therein. Specially analyzed is the power of retail chains’ demand with regard to the entire supply chains they head, as well as the present-day new competition in retailing and modern business concepts related to the vertical marketing systems. Additionally, analyzed are also select indicators to examine the significance of retailing in an individual national economy. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the new indicators of significance of retailing in economy with regard to the realized GDP, as a component of value chains. These indicators complement the usual retailing significance analyses from the point of view of its share in the number of employees and the number of companies.
From the conducted analysis, one may conclude that the vertical marketing systems become increasingly important, and retailing assumes a new role in economy in that sense. Thus, new indicators of retailing significance might also be necessary.
The aim of the paper is to analyse the impact of factors that dominantly influence the choice of trade chains with large purchases in Bosnia and Herzegovina in retail trade, mainly food, beverages and household hygiene products. The survey was conducted using the survey questionnaire on a representative sample of 350 respondents in Sarajevo, Banja Luka and Mostar, with the aim of determining the prevailing buying behaviour of consumers during large purchases in Bosnia and Herzegovina, in retail outlets from large retail chains. For the purpose of analysing the collected data, the statistical package of SPSS was used, and in particular the methods: variance analysis (ANOVA) and multivariate variance analysis (MANOVA). On the basis of the obtained results, factors that have the greatest influence on the selection of retail chains in large purchases in Bosnia and Herzegovina at the level of Sarajevo, Banja Luka and Mostar can be determined. The contribution of this research is reflected in the recognition and understanding of the behaviour of consumers in the selection of retail chains in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The correct understanding of the factors that lead consumers in making large purchases is of essential importance for the business of retail chains in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Retail chains often face tough competition and permanently seek to increase profitability. Closing outlets is a common strategy, even if knowledge about its implications is limited. Indeed, chain sales losses from store closure of a multi-outlet retailer operating multiple formats vary widely across outlets (ranging from less than 30 % to more than 80 % of the closed outlet’s revenue) and depend not only on the closed store’s format and distance to competitors, but also on the profile of its clientele and type of shopping trip. Analyzing these criteria helps to predict the magnitude of these losses for specific store closures using a new model. It offers guidance to retailers in deciding whether a particular store closure is beneficial to the chain or, if the objective is to prune an overly dense network, which of a set of local outlets is the best candidate for closure
The research aims to assess the emotional state of the consumer during the purchase process in the urban retail chains. Galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart beat per minute (BPM) are used to assess the effect of environment on emotional fatigue of the consumer during shopping. Stress index was used for evaluating the results of different shops visited by a consumer. The conceptual framework of emotional fatigue research has been presented. The method was also used to estimate the level of emotional fatigue of a consumer during his or her visit to any shop on each purchase stage. The results can improve the quality of trade services by creating more favorable environment for shopping, planning sales areas, shops, sales analysis, advertising campaigns, and analysis of customers’ behavior. Developing a method to process and assess a consumer’s emotional state in purchase elements extend the neuromarketing theory by including the real environment component in it.
Galkin Andrii, Yuliia Popova, Oksana Bodnaruk, Yuliia Zaika, Elena Chuprina, Shapovalenko Denys and Kolonataievskyi Oleg
Demand for high-quality shopping service has seen continuous growth in the recent years, allowing retail chains to achieve sustainable competitive advantage, increase number of loyal customers. This in-turn results in demand boosting and image of the firm. To analyze and achieve this emotional reactions of customers while shopping becomes important. The paper attempts to evaluate the effect of emotional fatigue on purchase process and uses neuromarketing tool – Galvanic skin reaction analysis to do so. Changes in the buyer emotional reaction of consumers was observed through more than 150 experiments at 15 different retailers. The results showed that retailer selection depended on emotional fatigue of the customer. Different types of retailers create different emotional fatigue which affects the footfall.
Dan-Cristian Dabija, Juraj Chebeň and Drahoslav Lančarič
Recent changes of the environment and in the society have altered consumers’ preferences and brought new concerns among local communities regarding environmental protection and organizations responsibility, the adoption of environmentally friendly strategies, as well as offering more sustainable products. Consumers tend to select retailers based on their focus on environmental friendly products and on various “green” strategies regarding waste disposal, package recycling, etc. This study aims to highlight Romanian and Slovak consumers’ attitudes towards purchasing of goods from retailers that strive a clear focus on environmental responsibility and environmental friendly practices in apparel, footwear and sportswear retail. By means of a quantitative research based on a questionnaire administered to consumers of international retail chains with operations in both countries, the authors highlight differences in their perceptions and attitudes for buying green apparel, footwear and sportswear. Whereas Millennials and Gen Xers consumers in Romania and Slovakia believe that international apparel, footwear and sportswear retailers are less concerned about environmentally responsible behavior and the need of selling green products, Baby Boomers are more sensitive to such aspects and carefully select retailers according to their green strategy. This research provides specific findings about attitudes of different consumers’ generations within two emerging European countries (Romania, Slovakia).
In order to categorize the global diffusion of supermarkets, the metaphor of waves is often used. This is a simplification, however, which obscures the fact that developments in the countries experiencing these waves of innovation are much more nuanced. This case study on the development of the Turkish grocery retail sector since the 1950s, shows how this development can be divided into different phases. Furthermore, it demonstrates that state retail chains paved the way for private actors, while most studies about the modernization of the retail sector have a focus on private companies or - even more specifically - on transnational corporations