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). Open Innovation Research, Management and Practice. Imperial College Press. Open Innovation in Global Networks. Paris: OECD. 5. Chesbrough, H., Vanhaverbeke, W., West, J. (ed.) (2006). Open Innovation. Researching a New Paradigm. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 6. Aschhoff, B., Schmidt, T. (2008). Empirical Evidence on the Success of R&D Cooperation - Happy Together? Review of Industrial Organization, No. 33, pp. 41-62. 7. Wiśniowski, W. (2013). Badania i świadczenie usług na światowym rynku badań. Marketing Instytucji Naukowych i Badawczych, No. 1 (7), pp. 3-12. 8

Bibliography 1. Aldenderfer, M.S., Blashfield, R.K. (1984). Cluster Analysis . Sage Publications, Inc. 2. Alon, U. (2010). How to Build a Motivated Research Group. Molecular Cell , 37, 151–152. 3. Assis Neto, F.R., Santos, C.A.S. (2018). Understanding crowdsourcing projects: A systematic review of tendencies, workflow, and quality management. Information Processing and Management , 54, 490–506. 4. Bottom, W., Ladha, K., Miller, G. (2002). Propagation of individual bias through group judgement: Error in the treatment of asymmetrically informative signals. The

: Czytelnik. 7. Wiśniowski W. (2010). Marketing Instytucji Naukowych i Badawczych. Prace Instytutu Lotnictwa nr 208 , Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Instytutu Lotnictwa. 8. Wiśniowski, W. (2012). Marketing Instytucji Naukowych i Badawczych. Prace Instytutu Lotnictwa , Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Instytutu Lotnictwa. 9. Act from July 25, 1985 about research-development units: Dz.U. 2008, Nr 159, poz. 993 z późn. zm. 10. Act from April 30, 2010 — Regulations introducing laws reforming the system of science. Dz.U. 2010, Nr 96, poz. 620 z późn. zm.. 11. Act from October 8

. 187/2014, pp. 87-100. 5. GIG (2016). Strategia HR dla naukowców. Wewnętrzna analiza luk i plan działań. Katowice: GIG. 6. Hatch, M.J. (2002). Teoria organizacji. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. 7. Lemire, D. Attributes of good research, 8. Krugman, P. (1994). Competitiveness: A Dangerous Obsession. Foreign Affairs, marzec/Kwiecień, pp. 28-44. 9. Konecki, K.T. (2007). Kulturowe uwarunkowania zarządzania zasobami ludzkimi. Sprzężenia zwrotne w działaniu. In: Konecki, K.T., Chomczyński, P. (ed

pozyskiwania i prezentowania danych z zakresu działalności badawczej i rozwojowej . Warszawa: GUS. 13. OECD (2015). Frascati Manual 2015: Guidelines for Collecting and Reporting Data on Research and Experimental Development . OECD. 2018 Statistics Poland for this Polish editio. 14. Salisu, Y., Abu Bakar, L. J. (2019). Technological Capability, Innovativeness and the Performance of Manufacturing Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Developing Economies of Africa. Journal of Business and Management , Vol. 21, No. 1, (58). 15. Strategia „Europa 2020” (2015). Ministerstwo


Analysing the functioning of research-development units in some European countries, it is necessary to take into consideration legal-organizational conditions for their operation within the structures of science in a given country. In the recent years networking of research institutes has become an international trend and in Poland it has become a solution promoted by government administration. The article is an attempt to take a closer look at the activity of similar research organizations in Germany and France. The goal of this article is to present to the reader organizational solutions concerning research institutes in France and Germany. The research methods applied in this article are: analysis of source materials, comparative analysis and two case studies: Carnot network and Fraunhofer network.

References Anderson, R., & Braud, W. (2011). Transforming Self and Others Through Research: Transpersonal Research Methods and Skills for the Human Sciences and Humanities. New York, USA: SUNY Press. Bell, John S. (1987). Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. Braud, W. & Anderson, R. (1998). Transpersonal Research Methods for the Social Sciences: Honouring Human Experience. Thousand Oaks CA, USA: Sage Publications. Dawkins, R. (2011). The Magic of Reality: How We Know What's Really True. London, UK: Bantam Press

, Innowacje, Rozwój 2014-2020 cycle organized by Business Center Club, which was held in Warsaw on June 5, 2013. The debate was attended by experts from the scientific community, representatives of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Ministry of Regional Development and the National Centre for Research and Development. Material patronage over the Debate was taken by the Main Council of Research Institutes. The debate was conducted by editor Bartosz Marczuk from Rzeczpospolita daily. 12 More about the event: http

References Di Blas, N., Fiore, A., Mainetti, L., Paolini, P., Vergallo, R. (2014a). A portal of educational resources: providing evidence for matching pedagogy with technology. In Research in Learning Technology, vol. 22, ISSN: 2156-7069, UK: Co-Action Publishing, May 2014, 1-26 Di Blas, N., Mazuran, M., Paolini, P., Quintarelli, E., Tanca, L. (2014b), Exploratory computing: a draft manifesto”, In Proceedings of DSAA 2014 (International Conference on Data Science and Advanced Analytics), Shanghai, China, Oct. 30-Nov. 1, 2014 Di Blas, N., Paolini, P. (2014

Bibliography 1. Altkorn J. (1996). Podstawy marketingu . Kraków: Instytut Marketingu. 2. Kotler P. (2012). Marketing . Warszawa. Rebis 3. Kotler P. Armstrong G., Saunders J., Wong V. (2002). Marketing. Podręcznik europejski. Warszawa: PWE. 4. Kulawczuk P. (2010). Konstruowanie modeli biznesowych współpracy nauki i biznesu w realizacji działalności badawczo-rozwojowej. W: Budowa współpracy nauki z biznesem w Województwie Lubelskim. Warszawa: IBnDiPP. 5. Lotko A., Walasik M. (2013). Examples of good marketing practices in research and scientific institutes in