Analysis of Long-Term Plan for Energy Supply System for Latvia that is 100% Based on the Use of Local Energy Resources
The prices of fossil energy resources are expected to rise substantially in the future, therefore fossil energy resources might not be a feasible energy source for Latvia in the long term. The establishment of a fully self-sufficient energy supply system will require a significant transformation of the existing energy supply and transport infrastructure. Early planning of such a system makes it possible to shape development of the existing energy system in order to achieve that goal of a fully self-sufficient energy supply system. The paper shows a potential solution to establish an energy and transport system solely based on the domestic primary resources by the year 2050.
Jasna Tolmac, Slavica Prvulovic, Marija Nedic and Dragisa Tolmac
The paper analyzes the development opportunities of solar systems in the Republic of Serbia. Renewable energy sources and their energy potential, such as solar energy, should be considered in order to meet the needs of consumers. Solar energy can be considered the most modern renewable energy whose utility is still developing, and it is not represented as the utilization of hydro energy sources. Researches show that Serbia is a country with a high RES potential and that it has favorable conditions for production of electrical and heat energy from renewable sources. The aim of this paper is to present the possibilities of using solar energy in Serbia. Energy supply from renewable energy sources is a key factor for each country's strategy, because it directly contributes to reducing the negative effect on the environment.
Heating application efficiency is a crucial point for saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Today, EU legal framework conditions clearly define how heating systems should perform, how buildings should be designed in an energy efficient manner and how renewable energy sources should be used. Using heat pumps (HP) as an alternative “Renewable Energy System” could be one solution for increasing efficiency, using less energy, reducing the energy dependency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This scientific article will take a closer look at the different efficiency dependencies of such geothermal HP (GHP) systems for domestic buildings (small/medium HP). Manufacturers of HP appliances must document the efficiency, so called COP (Coefficient of Performance) in the EU under certain standards. In technical datasheets of HP appliances, these COP parameters give a clear indication of the performance quality of a HP device. HP efficiency (COP) and the efficiency of a working HP system can vary significantly. For this reason, an annual efficiency statistic named “Seasonal Performance Factor” (SPF) has been defined to get an overall efficiency for comparing HP Systems. With this indicator, conclusions can be made from an installation, economy, environmental, performance and a risk point of view. A technical and economic HP model shows the dependence of energy efficiency problems in HP systems. To reduce the complexity of the HP model, only the important factors for efficiency dependencies are used. Dynamic and static situations with HP´s and their efficiency are considered. With the latest data from field tests of HP Systems and the practical experience over the last 10 years, this information will be compared with one of the latest simulation programs with the help of two practical geothermal HP system calculations. With the result of the gathered empirical data, it allows for a better estimate of the HP system efficiency, their economic costs and benefits and their environmental impact.
Recently, renewable energy sources (RES) have become very popular all over the EU. Subsidy policies have provided huge amount of money flowing into the sector which were necessary for its development. In Slovakia, favourable legislation was one of triggers for building biogas plants using anaerobic fermentation for biogas and further electric energy production. This paper examines how subsidy policy has stimulated biogas sector over the years and the consequences arising from the legislation.
Despite quite similar conditions (natural resources) for electricity production from renewable energy sources (RES-E) in three Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania), significant differences exist in these countries as to the RES-E production volume. In Latvia this volume is the highest, while in Estonia and Lithuania it is half as high. One of the factors that determine the RES-E production volumes is support policies, which in the Baltic States are different. The main objective of this work was to analyze and compare these support policies. The results have shown that for rapid RES-E development the most effective policy is to be market-oriented (as in Estonia), whereas for more stable development such policy should be producer-oriented (as in Lithuania).
Māris Balodis, Valērijs Skribans and Poļina Ivanova
Nowadays, energy companies operate in a highly competitive environment. To maintain the leader position, as a reaction to various changes energy companies must take appropriate steps in a timely manner.
Correct assessment of the situation ensures implementation of adequate measures. The situation can be assessed correctly by using a complex approach and/or analysing it according to the specific circumstances. The complex approach also envisages designing of an appropriate model, which studies the impact of changes on the research object, while dealing with the object within a system and as part of the system.
The article gives a theoretical background of the system dynamics model in order to evaluate the impact of integration of renewable energy sources (RES) on the operational efficiency of energy supply facilities (power and heat supply) on the national and regional levels, as well as provides the first modelling results.
European energy system is undergoing a deep transition to low-emission energy sources, mainly wind farms. This transition is caused mostly by energy politics of European Union (EU) and its goals in the topic of renewable energy. European wind energy is dominated by Germany that produces half of total wind energy in EU. The aim of this article is to present support systems for wind farms existing in Germany in the context of introducing in Poland the Act of 20 May 2016 on Wind Energy Investments limiting onshore wind farms localization and Act of 22 June 2016 introducing changes to the Act on Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and some other acts. It is postulated to make amendments of acts regulating RES while considering German solutions.
Bogdan Kościk, Alina Kowalczyk-Juśko, Renata Borecka and Krzysztof Kielmas
Subject and purpose of work: The work concerns the reduction of greenhouse gas emission thanks to renewable energy sources (RES) utilized in selected municipalities of the Lubelskie Province. The aim of the study was to assess the consistency between the tasks provided in low-emission economy plans (LEEP) and the strategic documents on RES, especially biomass. The investment priorities of municipalities regarding RES and the impact of these investments on the emission of CO2 have been presented.
Materials and methods: The analysis covered 8 LEEPs and programming documents: EU, national and regional ones concerning RES.
Results: EU and Polish policy contribute to the development of RES, including biomass, under the condition that their negative effect on the environment, resulting especially from biomass burning, is limited. Municipalities intend mainly to use solar energy, yet the technologies of biomass they suggest are not always in line with new trends.
Conclusions: Measures limiting the emission of greenhouse gases, including the use of RES, are provided in the analysed LEEPs. However, some municipalities intend to produce energy from biomass, mainly in the process of combustion. As this is not in line with the latest EU recommendations, such plans should then be verified.
Increasing volumes of electricity derived from renewable energy sources (RES-E) affect the electricity market prices and the prices for final electricity consumers in the Baltic States. The results of a multivariate regression analysis show that in 2013 the RES-E contributed to decreasing the electricity market prices in the Baltic States. However, the final electricity consumers pay for the promotion of RES-E through the approved RES-E component which has a tendency to increase. It is estimated that in 2013 the net benefits from the wind electricity promotion were achieved in Lithuania and Latvia while the net cost - in Estonia. This suggests that the economic efficiency of the wind electricity support scheme based on the application of feed-in tariffs was higher than that based on the feed-in premium.
Adopted in 2009, the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources sets out the rules for how Poland is to achieve the 15% target of total primary energy from renewables by 2020. However, there are fears that the goals set out in this Directive may not be met. The share of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in national energy consumption (150 TWh) is estimated at 8.6 TWh in 2009 and 12 TWh in 2011 (5.7 and 8% respectively). The level of RES in Poland until 2005 was approx. 7.2%. The analysis of RES technologies currently in use in Poland shows that in terms of the share in the total capacity, the 750 hydro-electric power plants which are currently in operation (with the overall capacity of almost 0.95 GW) are second only to wind power stations (2 GW). The authors have studied the Nysa Klodzka River in terms of possible locations for hydro-electric facilities. Eight locations have been identified where power plants might be constructed with installed capacities ranging from 319 to 1717 kW. The expected total annual electric power generation of these locations would stand at approx. 37.5 GWh.