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. Roczniki Gleboznawcze – Soil Science Annual 52(supplement): 167–175 (in Polish with English abstract). Brożek S., Zwydak M., 2003. Atlas gleb leśnych Polski. CILP. Warszawa: 127 pp. (in Polish). Ciarkowska K., 2000. Charakterystyka gipsowych rędzin brunatnych. Roczniki Gleboznawcze – Soil Science Annual 51 (1–2): 101–111 (in Polish with English abstract). Ciarkowska K., 2001. Sorption properties of gypsic rendzinas from the Niecka Nidzianska area. Acta Agrophysica 50: 71–79. Ciarkowska K., Miechówka A., 2005a. Aktywność biologiczna górskich rędzin próchnicznych

rendzina soils formed out of limestones of different geological formations. Roczniki Gleboznawcze – Soil Science Annual 37(2–3): 159–167. (In Polish with English summary). Krzywonos K., 1992. Organogenic carbonaceous soils on lacustrine chalk – characteristics and classification. Wiadomości IMUZ 17(3): 37–55. (In Polish with English summary). Krzywonos K., 1993. Physical and hydrological characteristics of mineral-moorsh carbonaceous soils on lacustrine chalk. Wiadomości IMUZ 17(3): 57–77. Kuźnicki F., Skłodowski P., 1976. Content and characteristics of the forms of

REFERENCES Ahr S. W., Nordt L.C., Driese S.G., 2012. Assessing lithologic discontinuities and parent material uniformity within the Texas sandy mantle and implications for archaeological burial and preservation potential in upland settings. Quaternary Research (United States) 78(1): 60–71. Ciarkowska K., 2000. Characteristic of brown gypsic rendzinas. Roczniki Gleboznawcze – Soil Science Annual 51(1/2): 101–111. Ciarkowska K., Niemyska-Łukaszuk J., 2004. Microstructure and selected properties of gypsic chermozemic rendzinas occurring on the Niecka Nidziańska area

Narodowego. [In:] Monograph of Ojcowski National Park. (Partyka J., Editor). Ojców: 179–206 pp. (in Polish). Miechówka A., 1989. Geochemical characteristic of rendzinas in the Tatra Mts. formed on dolomites. Part II. Chemical properties of investigated soils. Roczniki Gleboznawcze – Soil Science Annual 40(2): 83–105 (in Polish with English abstract). Niemyska-Łukaszuk J., Zaleski T., Miechówka A., 2004. Characteristics of the soils of the Pieniny National Park. Studia Naturae 49: 33–41 (in Polish with English abstract). Pancer-Kotejowa E., 1973. Forest communities of the

. Biological activity of mountain humic rendzinas formed on calcarous and sulphate rocks. Part I. Micromorphological indexes of soil fauna activity and dehydrogenase activity. Problemy Zagospodarowania Ziem Górskich 52: 57–64 (In Polish). Ciarkowska K., Niemyska-Łukaszuk J., 2002. Microstructure of humus horizons of gypsic soils from the Niecka Nidziańska area (South Poland). Geoderma 106: 319–329. Clough A., Skjemstad J.O., 2000. Physical and chemical protection of soil organic carbon in three agricultural soils with different contents of calcium carbonate. Australian

English abstract). Ciarkowska K., 2001. Sorption properties of gypsic rendzinas from the Niecka Nidziańska area. Acta Agrophysica 50: 71–79. Ciarkowska K., Niemyska-Łukaszuk J., 2002. Microstructure of gypsic horizons of gypsic soils from the Niecka Nidziańska area (South Poland). Geoderma 106: 319–329. Ciarkowska K., Niemyska-Łukaszuk J., 2004. Budowa mikromorfologiczna i wybrane właściwości gipsowych rędzin czar-noziemnych terenu Niecki Nidziańskiej i kotliny Vallada Agordina (Dolomity Włoskie). Roczniki Gleboznawcze – Soil Science Annual 55(4): 15–22 (in Polish with


The agricultural value of rendzina soils depends on many factors, including type of parent rock, texture of arable layer, admixture of post-glacial materials and occurrence of coarse fragments. Over 97% of rendzinas in Poland are arable soils, and less than 3% are under permanent meadows and permanent pastures. Rendzinas are soil of high production potential for agriculture. Almost 75% of them were included in the wheat complexes (from 1 to 3) while about 10% are weak and very weak rye soils (complex 6 and 7) in Polish land suitability system. Groups of rendzinas identified for agricultural purposes and the principles of their identification were established on 1950s and 1960s when bonitation maps and soil-agricultural maps were prepared. These principles have not changed so far, therefore the purpose of the work was to describe the divisions of these soils and the characteristics of their properties on the example of arable soils based on the available data.


The article presents the overview of the rendzinas found in the Polish Tatra mountains based on literature data and unpublished authors results and observations. Particular attention was paid to soil properties related to the high mountain environment in Poland occurring only in the the Tatra Mountains. The influence of soil forming factors on the genesis of rendzinas and their spatial distribution was described. Furthermore the soils properties were analysed in order of distinguished soil units. Finally the proposal for classification of Tatra rendzinas was given.


It is suggested that calcareous soils formed from calcareous gyttja were termed quaternary rendzinas, as indicated by Uggla. Their differentiation is connected with the amount of calcium carbonate and anthropogenic modification of surface horizon. Soils being in the initial phase of organic matter accumulation are suggested to be termed initial quaternary rendzinas, whereas the soils that have humus horizon more than 10 cm thick - proper quaternary rendzinas. Taking into consideration the fact that humus horizon of these soils is developed during siltation with alluvial or deluvial deposits, separation of calcareous post-lacustrine soils in alluvial and deluvial soils should be considered alternatively.


This paper was focused on determining whether gravimetric sampling and impedance method of measuring soil moisture content provided different results and if they did, what was the size of the differences between particular methods on rendzinas and cambisols. The means of moisture content should be equal when using both methods on similar spots. During the research, an Eijkelkamp Penetrologger penetrometer equipped with impedance probes and gravimetric sampling cylinders from Eijkelkamp were used. The samples were taken from the undisturbed stand, ruts, and the centre of the skid trail. The impedance probes were inserted six centimetres deep into the soil. Soil samples were taken from similar depth in order to calculate the moisture content through the gravimetric method. 138 measurements were carried out for each method. The minimal difference of moisture contents measured by individual methods was 0.01%, maximal difference was 22.06%, and on average it was 7.42%. Oneway ANOVA was used for first stage analysis of the statistical sample. It proved that the differences between measurements were statistically significant in two out of three considered stands. Tukey’s HSD test was used to identify which data groups contributed to refuting the aforementioned hypothesis. The test showed that in one stand all relevant pairs of data were significantly different, while in the other stand only data pairs from the ruts were significantly different. The calibration method provided by the producers did not refine the accuracy of the impedance probes sufficiently and different calibration procedures have to be used.