Martin Mikulič, Pavol Gregora, Ľuboš Benkovský and Pavol Peráček
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2. AUGSTE, C. and M. LAMES, 2011. The relativeageeffect and success in German elite U-17 soccer teams. Journal of Sports Sciences , 29 (9), page 983-987.
3. BARNSLEY, R. H., A.H. THOMPSON and P.E. BARNSLEY, 1985. Hockey success and birthdate: The relativeageeffect. Journal of the Canadian Association of Health, Physical Education and Recreation , 51, p. 23-28.
Alba Práxedes, Alberto Moreno, Luis García-González, David Pizarro and Fernando Del Villar
’s advantage over another athlete born in December (relatively younger) ( Arrieta et al., 2015 ). The consequence of this, translated into the tendency to choose the oldest players in each category, is known as the RelativeAgeEffect (RAE) ( Gil et al., 2014 ).
The RAE has been studied in different sports such as hockey (Nolan and Howell, 2010), rugby ( Till et al., 2009 ), volleyball ( Okazaki et al., 2011 ) and especially in soccer ( Gil et al., 2007 ; Sallaoui et al., 2014 ). In soccer, numerous studies focused on the RAE have determined that players born during the
Sixto González-Víllora, Juan C. Pastor-Vicedo and David Cordente
Augste C, Lames M. The relativeageeffect and success in German elite U-17 soccer teams. J Sport Sci, 2011; 29(9): 983-987
Baker J, Schorer J, Cobley S. Relative age effects: An inevitable consequence of elite sport? German J of Sport Sci, 2010; 1: 26-30
Barnsley RH, Thompson AH, Legault P. Family planning: Football style. The relativeageeffect in football. Int Rev for the Soc of Sport, 1992; 27(1): 77-88
Baxter-Jones AD. Growth and development of young athletes: Should competition levels be age related? Sports Med
Differences in the biological development of children and adolescents indirectly determine the assessment of predispositions to play a particular sport. When evaluating the potential of a young athlete, his or her skills are compared within a peer group. However, the chronological age of this group can differ by over 11 months. This difference results in players who have both physical and mental advantages over their younger peers, and these youth are consequently selected more frequently, creating the phenomenon known as the relativeageeffect
., 2009 , 2011 ; Sherar et al., 2007 ). Moreover, most of the sports include two consecutive years in one category, thus differences are even greater among the players ( Gil et al., 2014 ).
The term “relative age” refers to a person’s age relative to his/her peers who were born in the same calendar year ( Gil et al., 2014 ). The consequence of the variations in age within one annual cohort is known as the relativeageeffect (RAE) ( Wattie et al., 2008 ). RAE has been studied in depth in most team sports, such as hockey ( Nolan and Howell, 2010 ), soccer ( Gil et al
Christian M. Wrang, Niels N. Rossing, Rasmus M. Diernæs, Christoffer G. Hansen, Claus Dalgaard-Hansen and Dan S. Karbing
In several sports such as senior elite soccer ( Helsen et al., 2012 ), youth basketball ( Delorme and Raspaud, 2009 ), senior elite ice hockey ( Baker and Logan, 2007 ), youth and senior rugby ( Till et al., 2010 ) and youth handball ( Schorer et al., 2013 ), the athletes’ date of birth has been found to be a significant determinant for success. This is the so-called relativeageeffect (RAE) that refers to the difference of age between individuals in the same age group, which significantly affects the possibility of reaching the elite level
Silvia Sedano, Roel Vaeyens and Juan Carlos Redondo
development. A meta-Analytical review of relative age effects in sport. Sport Med, 2009; 39(3): 235-256
Cobley SP, Schorer J, Baker J. Relative age effects in professional German soccer: A historical analysis. J Sports Sci, 2008; 26(14): 1531-1538
Delorme N, Boiché J, Raspaud M. Relativeageeffect in female sport: a diachronic examination of soccer players. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 2010a; 20: 509-515
Delorme N, Boiché J, Raspaud M. Relativeageeffect in elite sports: Methodological bias or real discrimination. Eur J Sport Sci, 2010b; 10(2): 91
Nikoletta Nagy, Gyöngyi Földesi, Csaba Sós and Csaba Ökrös
Albuquerque, M.R., Franchini, E., Lage, G.M., de Paula, J.J., da Costa, V.T., Costa, I.T., & Malloy-Diniz, L.F. (2015). The relativeageeffect in combat sports: An analysis of Olympic Judo athletes: 1964-2012. Perceptual and Motor Skills . 121(1), 300-308.
Baker, J., Cobley, S., & Montelpare, W.J. (2010). Exploring proposed mechanism of the relativeageeffect in Canadian Minor Hockey. International Journal of Sport Psychology . 41, 148-159.
Baker, J. & Logan, A.J. (2007). Developmental contexts and sporting success: Birth date and
João P. Duarte, Manuel J. Coelho-e-Silva, Daniela Costa, Diogo Martinho, Leonardo G. O. Luz, Ricardo Rebelo-Gonçalves, João Valente-dos-Santos, António Figueiredo, André Seabra and Robert M. Malina
The relativeageeffect (RAE) refers to the over-representation of players born in the earliest quarter or trimester of the calendar and/or selection year, and is reasonably well established in youth soccer ( Deprez et al., 2012 ; Gil et al., 2014 ; Helsen et al., 2012 ; Wattie et al., 2015 ). The RAE reflects a bias associated with the birth month and corresponds to a substantial difference between observed and expected distributions of soccer players by the birth month ( Gil et al., 2014 ; Helsen et al., 1998 ). A significantly higher
Alburquerque, M.R., Lage, G.M., Da Costa, V.T., Ferreira, R.M., Penna, E.M., Albur-Querque, L.C.C., & Fernandes, L. (2012). Relativeageeffect in Olympic taekwondo athletes. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 114(2), 461-468.
Augste, C., & Lales, M. (2011). The relativeageeffect and success in German elite U-17 soccer teams. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(9), 983-987.
Barnsley, R.H., Thompson, A.H., & Barnsley, P.E. (1985). Hockey success and birthdate: the relativeageeffect. CAHPER Journal, 51(8), 23-28.