Georgia can be characterised by its turbulent history, centuries-old traditions, and a great ethnic diversity. This makes it necessary to include historical determinants, in addition to geopolitical and economic factors, when making a regional analysis of its territory and contemporary governance issues. Five stages of the development of the present territorial division of Georgia are distinguished. They have been identified by means of an analysis of key events (critical junctures) of significance in the formation of its historical regions. Additionally, their influence at each of the three levels of the current territorial division of independent Georgia is discussed, in particular in the context of territorial governance.
Towards redefining the regional division of Poland for faunistic studies
For summaries and inventories of fauna of Poland, especially insects, research professionals and amateurs apply a division of the country into regions that became a functional standard in the 1960s when Catalogus Faunae Poloniae was published. Despite its long tradition in the local entomological literature, this approach should be treated as inadequate and provisional. The present article gives an overview of the roots of the traditional division, discusses its limitations and proposes a new, more precise and informative division, together with a description of the requirements and tools needed for the transition. Based on the "Physico-Geographical Regionalization of Poland" by Kondracki, this proposal redefines the borders of most of the KFP regions and presents a solution compatible with the widely used regionalization system, approved by geographers. In consequence of this direct connection with physical geography, some of the KFP regions have been removed or rearranged and new ones formed. The new system is not meant to be treated as a zoogeographical regionalization; rather, it aims to replace the unclearly defined objects of the old division, facilitating regional comparisons of fauna. Used with appropriate caution, it may also be helpful in analyses involving elements of biogeographical inference that were not justified in the old system.
On the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the first United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names, the author presents the historical background of the ongoing international cooperation on the unification of toponyms on a global scale. The 1967 conference in Geneva was extremely important in defining the objectives and tasks of the cooperation, setting out the main areas of action (national standardization, geographical terms, spelling systems, international exchange of information) and, through the resolutions adopted at the time, formulating detailed guidelines for standardization procedures. In the past half-century, the global organising of geographic nomenclature – although still incomplete – has gained a universally accepted institutional framework and has produced the expected results. The UNGEGN (United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names) plays a major role in organising the cyclical conferences, sessions, regional division and working group meetings, and toponymy courses, as well as inspiring the creation of unified databases and publications.
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