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References Gawryszewski, A., 2005: Ludność Polski w XX wieku (Poland’s population in the 20th century - in Polish). Warszawa: Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania im. Stanisława Leszczyckiego PAN. Giddens, A., 2006: Socjologia (Sociology - in Polish), Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. Gontarek, A. and Kamińska, M., 2006: Struktura ludności województwa zachodniopomorskiego według płci i wieku w latach 1999 i 2004. Zrożnicowanie regionalne (Age/sex structure of the Zachodniopomorskie voivodship population in 1999 and 2004. Regional differences


Understanding entrepreneurship as being spatially rooted transforms it in a regional and national competitiveness factor. Despite the increasing importance of the territorial dimension in supporting economic growth at policy and declarative levels, in practice, in Romania, the territorial structure and spatial organization of the economy contributes little to the national value added. In this context, we study regional differences in entrepreneurial initiative and perception and their possible impact on the national competitiveness strategy. We use primary data collected in three Romanian regions (Centre, North-East, Bucureşti-Ilfov) and conduct a statistical analysis of the data. The results indicate different comparative regional profiles. The regional differences in the intentions, motivations, barriers and limitation for entrepreneurship confirm the theoretical view that personal motivations of becoming an entrepreneur are determined by environmental conditions. We conclude that the regional differences should be taken into account in the elaboration of the competitiveness policy, corroborated with the results of other similar studies.

suicide in Turkey – in Turkish). In: Kriz Dergisi , Vol. 13 (3), pp. 15–26. Värnik, P., 2012: Suicide in the world. In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , Vol. 9, pp. 760–771. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph9030760 Zhang, J., 1998: Suicide in the world: toward a population increase theory of suicide. In: Death Studies , Vol. 22 (6), pp. 525–539. DOI: 10.1080/074811898201380 Wasserman, D., Varnik, A. and Dankowicz, M., 1998: Regional differences in the distribution of suicide in the former Soviet Union during perestroika, 1984–1990. In: Acta


The spatial structure of the world is unequal, centres and peripheries alternate. There are significant social and development differences between countries in the world, but there is also an unequal development within the countries. The main purpose of the regional policy is to reduce spatial inequalities by catching up the underdeveloped areas. Nowadays, in the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, technological progress creates possibilities for developing regions to catch up, because new technologies require new skills that are less dependent on factor endowments of countries. Most economies are unable to create new technologies because they do not have the appropriate resources or their institutional environment does not favour innovation. However, technological progress can also be observed in these countries by adopting and applying new technologies effectively. This research aims to illustrate the regional differences in the conditions of technological progress in Europe, using multivariate statistical methods. Based on the European Regional Competitiveness Index, the research question to be analysed is whether new technologies may be able to decrease spatial differences. We compare the European regions in the field of innovation in order to highlight the critical areas that can promote or prevent the reduction of inequalities.


The Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union is reflected in the development of agricultural production in Slovakia. The development of livestock production faced significant changes reflected in its overall decrease. The decrease in the level of agricultural production in Slovakia between 2002 and 2010 is shown by several indicators assessed in this paper. Its main aim is to highlight differences in Slovak agriculture at the level of LAU I, which are districts of Slovakia, according to the selected indicators of agricultural production between 2002 and 2010. We analyse the development of regional differences in Slovak agriculture that have widened under the influence of the EU Common Agricultural Policy. The development of selected indicators of agricultural production was analysed using the change index, which best represents differences in the development of agriculture in the Slovak regions.


This study estimates the prevalence of non-take-up of social assistance using administrative data from the Canton of Bern. Regional variation in non-take-up rates is then used to study the contextual effects of social norms with respect to welfare receipt legitimacy. Social norms are proxied with the degree of urbanity, language regions and communal voter shares of left- and right-wing parties. Multiple regression analysis, extended by several robustness checks, suggests that social norms do indeed have an impact on take-up behavior.


The analysis of the Swiss labor market poses a methodological challenge. On the one hand, Switzerland is too diversified to be analyzed as a single socio-economic space. On the other hand, a high level of territorial fragmentation makes the use of administrative divisions methodologically weak. In this paper, we classify Swiss cantons into three types of labor markets: attractive, multicenter, and marginal. Our typology is based on a wide range of economic and labor market parameters, and can be a ready-to-use tool for further researches.

References Beemsterboer W, Stewart R, Groothoff J, Nijhuis F On regional differences in duration of sick leave: the role of work, individual and health characteristics. Arch Publ Health 2005;63:293-312. Statistics Netherlands. Nationale Verzuimstatistiek 2006. Hague; 2007 [in Dutch]. Virtanen P, Nakari R, Ahonen H, Vahtera J, Pennti J Locality and habitus: the origins of sickness absence. Soc Sci Med 2000;50:27-39. Virtanen P, Vahtera J, Nakari R, Pennti J, Kivimaki M Economy and job contract as contexts of sickness absence practices: revisiting locality

References Amato LH, Amato CH (2007) The effects of firm size and industry on corporate giving. Journal of Business Ethics 72: 229–241. ARES (2016) Administrative Register of Economic Subjects. Ministry of Finance. Praha. Arminen H, Puumalainen K, Pätäri S, et al. (2018) Corporate social performance: Inter-industry and international differences. Journal of Cleaner Production 177: 426–437. Bekkers R (2016) Regional differences in philanthropy. Routledge companion to philanthropy. Routledge, London. Bekkers R, Schuyt T (2008) And who is your neighbor? explaining

of sickness absence: a three -month prospective study of nurse's aides. Occup Environ Med 2004;61(5):398-404. Beemsterboer W, Stewart R, Groothoff J, Nijhuis F. On regional differences in duration of sick leave: the role of work, individual and health characteristics. Arch Publ Health 2005;63:293-312. De Winter C. Arbeid, gezondheid en verzuim als voorspellers van uitval uit het werk [dissertation]. Maastricht: Rijksuniversiteit Limburg; 1991 [in Dutch]. Beemsterboer W, Stewart R, Groothoff J, Nijhuis F. On regional differences in sick leave: the role of work