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illustration.” Public Opinion Quarterly 64(3): 299–308. DOI: . Harris-Kojetin, B. and C. Tucker. 1999. “Exploring the Relation of Economic and Political Conditions with Refusal Rates to a Government Survey.” Journal of Official Statistics 15(2): 167–184. Available at: (accessed May 2020). National Center for Health Statistics. 2016. “National Health Interview Survey

References Beebe, Leslie, Tomoko Takahashi, and Robin Ullis-Weltz. 1990. “Pragmatic transfer in ESL refusals”. In: Robin C. Scarcella (ed.) Developing communicative competence ina second language , pp. 55-73 . New York: Newbury House. Blum-Kulka, Shoshana. 1982. “Learning to say what you mean in a second language: A study of the speech act performance of learners of Hebrew as a second language.” Applied Linguistics l3 (2), 29-59. Blum-Kulka, Shoshana, Juliane House and Gabriele Kasper. 1989. “Investigating crosscultural pragmatics: An introductory overview

PIŚMIENICTWO/REFERENCES 1. Dunn HP. Etyka dla lekarzy, pielęgniarek i pacjentów. Tarnów: Wyd. Biblos; 1997. 2. Pietrzkiewicz A. Przetaczanie krwi u Świadków Jehowy. Pielęgniarstwo Polskie 2011; 1 (39): 55–56. 3. Effa-Heap G. Blood transfusion: implications of treating a Jehovah’s Witness patient. Br J Nurs. 2009; 18(3): 174-177. 4. Spencer JR. A point of contention: The scriptural basis for the Jehovah’s Witnesses’ refusal of blood transfusions. Christian Bioethics. 2002; 8 (1): 63–90. 5. Wilson P. Jehowah’s Witness children: when religion and the law collide


We assess whether the probability of a sample member cooperating at a particular wave of a panel survey is greater if the same interviewer is deployed as at the previous wave. Previous research on this topic mainly uses nonexperimental data. Consequently, a) interviewer change is generally nonrandom, and b) continuing interviewers are more experienced by the time of the next wave. Our study is based on a balanced experiment in which both interviewer continuity and experience are controlled. Multilevel multiple membership models are used to explore the effects of interviewer continuity on refusal rate as well as interactions of interviewer continuity with other variables. We find that continuity reduces refusal propensity for younger respondents but not for older respondents, and that this effect depends on the age of the interviewer. This supports the notion that interviewer continuity may be beneficial in some situations, but not necessarily in others.

6. References AAPOR (American Association of Public Opinion Research) Task Force on Survey Refusals. 2014. Current Knowledge and Considerations Regarding Survey Refusals . Available at: (accessed 20 January 2020). AAPOR: American Association of Public Opinion Research. 2016. Standard Definitions, Final Dispositions of Case Codes and Outcome Rates for Surveys . Available at: (accessed 28


In the U.S. there are steady efforts by governmental and philanthropic organizations to increase the representation of students of colour in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). After years of mixed results, researchers and educators have started to question one size fits all notions of broadening participation. An increasing number of projects are challenging universalist assumptions by enrolling the expertise of culturally situated communities of practice in STEM lessons and the educational technologies that support them. While this research shows promising results for improving young people’s interest and performance in STEM, there has been little research on how these lessons and technologies might also benefit the communities whose expertise were originally enrolled. This paper details the design of educational technologies that bridge STEM and African American cosmetology. We report on a mixed-methods research project, conducted with a group of predominantly African American cosmetologists. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected to study their attitudes toward STEM before and after working with the technologies. Our results suggest positive changes in the cosmetologists’ attitudes. We end with a critical discussion about respecting the knowledge systems of underrepresented communities of practice in educational technology research and development.

–43. CAMPBELL, M. (2011): Conscientious Objection and the Council of Europe: The Right to Conscientious Objection in Lawful Medical Care. In: Medical Law Review , 19(3), pp. 467–475. CANTOR, J. D. (2009): Conscientious Objection Gone Awry – Restoring Selfless Professionalism in Medicine. In: New England Journal of Medicine, 360(15), pp. 1484–1485. CARD, R. F. (2016): In Defence of Medical Tribunals and the Reasonability Standard for Conscientious Objection in Medicine. In: Journal of Medical Ethics, 42(2), pp. 73–75. CHERRY, M. J. (2012): Conscience Clauses, the Refusal

., Ruiter, R. A., et al. Why parents refuse childhood vaccination: a qualitative study using online focus groups. BMC Public Health. 2013; 13: 1183. 25. Fredrickson DD, Davis TC, Arnould CL, et al. Childhood immunization refusal: provider and parent perceptions. Fam Med. 2004 Jun;36(6):431-9. 26. Gust DA, Kennedy A, Shui I, et al. Parent attitudes toward immunizations and healthcare providers: the role of information. Am J Prev Med. 2005;29:105–12. 27. Bednarek A, Zarzycka D. Trends in vaccinology education of nurses in Poland. Medical and Biological Sciences. 2015; 29

predict Reasons for Refusal. Methods, data, analyses 6(1): 3–20. Available at: (accessed August 2019). Lipps, O. 2012b. “A Note on improving Contact Times in Panel Surveys.” Field Methods 24(1): 95–111. DOI: . Little, R.J. and S. Vartivarian. 2005. “Does weighting for Nonresponse increase the Variance of Survey Means?” Survey Methodology 31(2): 161–168. Available at:

frequent malignant bone tumors. We included in the initial study population 110 patients with pelvis biopsies and the histopathological result of chondrosarcoma. We excluded the cases with incomplete data. Thirty-five in block resections were included in the final study population. In the rest of the cases, the surgery was not made because of many considerations (multiple metastases, patient’s refusal, and surgical contraindications). In three cases, discrepancies were noted between the grade of malignancy found after biopsy and the one confirmed through the