Raouia El Guemri, Wahbi Jaouadi, Kaouther Mechergui, Moodi Alsubeie, Souheila Naghmouchi, Sabri El Ouellani and Mohamed Larbi Khouja
For several decades, forest management policies have encouraged land cover changes, with the establishment of tree cover such as Aleppo pine in natural or degraded ecosystems for soil protection and the firewood production. In order to investigate the importance of Aleppo pine trees in the ecosystem, this study was conducted in the reforestation of the Aleppo pine of Northeastern Tunisia. The production of wood, cones and seeds of Aleppo pine in the 6 date reforestation in Northeastern Tunisia were surveyed using 6 plots (20 tree/plot) spread over 6 different location. Our hypothesis was to determine the characteristics that can be decisive in estimating the production of Aleppo pine in reforestation in Tunisia using terrestrial and spatial measurements including (i) age, (ii) dendrometric characteristics, (iii) silvicultural treatments, (iv) stationary data and/ or (v) remote sensing parameter (NDVI: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). We found that the Aleppo pine in Northeastern Tunisia and at young age trees (14–35 years) were more productive than the regeneration or reforestation stand, either young or old, in Northwest of Tunisia. Wood, cone and seed productions were significantly different amongst the plots (p <0.05). The NDVI was positively correlated with the production of wood, cones and seeds. Stand age, exposure and longitude were also positively correlated with the production. However, longitude and altitude were negatively correlated with the production, showing a negative effect on the morphological traits of trees and, subsequently, their growth. The regression analysis indicates that NDVI and age were the most determinant factors of seed production. This research suggests that reforestation planning, particularly the choice of altitude and latitude, may result in improved tree morphology that may increase Aleppo pine wood seed and cone crops.
Maciej Skorupski, Roman Gornowicz, Marcin Spaeth and Anna Wierzbicka
Mites of the order Mesostigmata on plots reforested with Scots pine after various kinds of soil preparation and wood residue utilization after clear-cutting
The clear-cutting system is still popular, especially on poor sites in Central European forests. It causes serious disturbances in natural processes during forest regeneration. The main objective of this research on mesostigmatid mites was to evaluate and compare the influence of various kinds of soil preparation and treatment of the wood debris left after clear-cutting (on plots reforested with Scots pine Pinus sylvestris). As a result of the conducted investigations, 24 mite species of the order Mesostigmata were found. The highest number of species represented the families Parasitidae (7 species), Laelapidae (4 species) and Zerconidae, Digamasellidae, Ascidae (3 species each). The study was conducted on an experimental plot in the Międzychód Forest District (West Poland). The species composition of mite communities on all subplots is characteristic for Scots pine forests. The highest numbers of individuals and species were collected on the plots where the wood residue was burnt or chipped and left on the soil surface. The lowest numbers of individuals and species were colleted on the plots where the chipped wood residue was mixed with soil or removed from the plots. The method of wood residue utilization significantly influenced the community structure of the Mesostigmata, while various kinds of soil preparation before reforestation did not have any significant influence.
The paper deals with non-whole-area artificial reforestation as a new rationalization method of forest regeneration based on a combination of planting of desirable tree species and natural regeneration of other tree species from surrounding adult stands. It presents the first preliminary results of the experiment established on the demonstration area Kysuce - locality Husarik. The first results suggest that non-wholearea artificial regeneration can bring significant cost savings in establishing and subsequent treatment of the forest cultures. On the other hand, the question of ensuring adequate regeneration of desirable tree species in required time remains open at this time, and longer monitoring is necessary.
Marcin Pietrzykowski, Bartłomiej Woś, Marek Pająk and Justyna Likus-Cieślik
odnawiania i pielęgnacji drzewostanów. PWRiL, Warszawa, 374 s. ISBN 83-09-01775-8.
Józefowska A., Woś B., Pietrzykowski M. 2016. Tree species and soil substrate effects on soil biota during early soil forming stages at afforested mine sites. Applied Soil Ecology 102: 70–79. DOI 10.1016/j.apsoil.2016.02.012.
Katzur J., Haubold-Rosar M. 1996. Amelioration and reforestation of sulfurous mine soils in Lusatia (Eastern Germany). Water, Air and Soil Pollution 91(1-2): 17–32.
Knoche D., Embacher A., Katzur J. 2002. Water and element fluxes of red oak
Y. H. Weng, K. A. Crowe, W. H. Parker, D. Lindgren, M. S. Fullarton and K. J. Tosh
CROWE, K. A. and W. H. PARKER (2008): Using portfolio theory to guide reforestation and restoration under climate change scenarios. Climate Change 89: 355-370.
EULER, F. VON, P. BARADAT and B. LEMOINE (1992): Effects of plantation density and spacing on competitive interactions among half-sib families of maritime pine. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 22: 482-489.
FOSTERA, G. S., R. J. ROUSSEAUB and W. L. NANCEC (1998): Eastern cottonwood clonal mixing study: intergenotypic competition effects. Forest
General information on forest growth and development as well as different approaches of forest management are presented in the introduction of the paper. Furthermore, it shows an analysis of the development of tree species composition in the Slovak forests during the last 50 years. Historical data base for the analysis originated from the forestry records (especially Permanent Forest Inventory). Our attention was focused on reforestation with respect to tree species, tree species composition in young forest stands by age classes and relations between these forest characteristics. The next section of the paper describes new proposals for regulation of forest regeneration and reforestation with the aim to achieve desired tree species composition in all age classes, not only in accordance with natural conditions but also respecting human demands in the future.
Hong-Yu Niu, Wan-Hui Ye, Zheng-Feng Wang, Ying Chen, Hong-Lin Cao, Lin-Fang Wu and Zhang-Ming Wang
Schima superba is a common dominant tree species in evergreen broad-leaved forest in subtropical China. Despite its multiple usages in wood industry, reforestation and traditional Chinese medicine, its genetic diversity is poorly studied. To help studying its genetic diversity and structure in the future, after microsatellite enrichment and screening, we identified 16 microsatellites in S. superba. These markers showed polymorphism in three populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 32 with a mean of 14. Within populations, the observed and unbiased expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.048 to 0.926 and from 0.048 to 0.949, respectively. The newly developed 16 microsatellites will be useful for investigating the genetic diversity and structure from large scale patterns to fine-scale structures in this species.
The process of abandonment of arable land seems to be one of the main factors of changes in landscape and soil properties. This problem occurs on nearly 10% of arable land in Poland. The natural aspect of transformation is connected with the entrance of birch trees on uncultivated land and the anthropogenic aspect is associated with pine plantations. In the beginning, the appearance of trees on the former arable land changes soil properties because soil (and plant) is the most dependent component of the natural environment. In this paper, the role of birch and pine was analysed in comparison to arable land, abandoned land without trees and birch tree communities of different age. After the entrance of birch trees, soil profiles were enriched in nitrogen and elements such as aluminium, iron, cadmium, lead, cobalt, zinc, which were moved from the sod horizon of soil or come from the atmospheric load and were accumulated in litter or the humus horizon. Compared to arable land, some elements, e.g. calcium had lower concentration under birch trees. In comparison to cultivated land, birch and pine trees made the soil environment more natural, as expressed in the chemical properties of soil.
We observed ground level ozone concentrations on a series of five beech experimental plots, one representing the original stand and the other four generated and modified by cuts of graduated intensity. The study was carried out in a beech ecosystem in the Kremnické vrchy Mts, the Western Carpathian region, in years 1999-2008. The plots, established in 1989, were evaluated and compared statistically before and after the cutting modification in 2004. The level of significance of the effect of this intervention was 99% on the plot representing small-area clear-cut and on the plot treated with medium cut. Differences, though not significant, were also found in the other plots. Apart from the effects due to the stocking reduction, the whole post-intervention period was characterised with the influence of progressively increasing average air temperatures and similarly increasing ozone concentrations. Globally, the ozone concentrations on all plots were lower (average value 39 μg m-3) during the period 1999-2003 than in the following years 2004-2008 (average value 55 μg m-3). Maximum values measured in the growing season ranged from 36 to 140 μg m-3. The allowable limit exceeded 10 times in years 1999-2003 but 17 times in years 2004-2008, implying worsening conditions in Central European beech forest stands.
Currently, Greenhouse Gas Emissions are the main reason of the global warming threat. Carbon sequestration by the forests plays the important role in reducing CO2 emissions. Therefore, the environmental policy of the state to reduce greenhouse gases should first of all focus on the development of forestry. But at the same time the environmental policy depends on the tax policy of the state and is significantly different in developed countries and in countries with transition economies.