Humanity has long been haunted by the notions of Armageddon and the coming of a Golden Age. While the English Romantic poets like Shelley saw hopes of a new millennium in poems like “Queen Mab” and “The Revolt of Islam”, others like Blake developed their own unique “cosmology” in their longer poems that were nevertheless coloured with their vision of redemption and damnation. Even Hollywood movies, like The Book of Eli (2010), rehearse this theme of salvation in the face of imminent annihilation time and again. Keeping with such trends, this paper would like to trace this line of apocalyptic vision and subsequent hopes of renewal with reference to William Golding’s debut novel Lord of the Flies (1954) and his Pincher Martin (1956). While in the former, a group of young school boys indulge in violence, firstly for survival, and then for its own sake, in the latter, a lonely, shipwrecked survivor of a torpedoed destroyer clings to his own hard, rock-like ego that subsequently is a hurdle for his salvation and redemption, as he is motivated by a lust for life that makes him exist in a different moral and physical dimension. In Lord of the Flies, the entire action takes place with nuclear warfare presumably as its backdrop, while Pincher Martin has long been interpreted as an allegory of the Cold War and the resultant fear of annihilation from nuclear fallout (this applies to Golding’s debut novel as well). Thus, this paper would argue how Golding weaves his own vision of social, spiritual, and metaphysical dissolution, and hopes for redemption, if any, through these two novels.
7. References B aker M.J., M iceli T.J., S irmans F.C., Economic Theory of Mortgage Redemption Laws, Real Estate Economics, 2008, Vol. 36, Issue 1, pp. 31–45. B ieniek G. [ in :] B ieniek G., R udnicki S., Nieruchomości. Problematyka prawna ( Real Estate. Legal Aspects ), Warszawa 2011, pp. 540 and the following. B ogucki S., Prawo odkupu ( The Back-in Right ), Rejent 1995, No. 9, pp. 132, 137, 193. C zachórski W. [in:] C zachórski W., B rzozowski A., S afjan M., S owrońska -B ocian E., Zobowiązania. Zarys wykładu ( Liabilities. The Outline of
The Author of the article presents the results of research devoted to the forms of transfer of profit to shareholders of the companies quoted at Warsaw Stock Exchange in the period 2009–2013. The Author concluded that there are features in the group of dividend companies and another group – that of dividend companies which additionally execute share redemption and cancellation – which make them different.
The beatific vision is widely perceived as a Roman Catholic doctrine. Many continue to view deification as a distinctively Eastern Orthodox doctrine incompatible with the Western theological tradition, especially its Protestant expressions. This essay will demonstrate that several Reformers of the first and second generation promoted a vision of redemption that culminates with deification and beatific vision. They affirmed these concepts without apology in confessional statements, dogmatic works, biblical commentaries, and polemical treatises. Attention will focus on figures in the Reformed tradition though one could produce similar surveys for the Lutheran and Anglican branches of the Reformation as well. John Calvin will receive extended treatment because some scholars dispute whether he affirmed deification. This essay presents important evidence thus far overlooked which should settle the question.
The present article attempts to portray a rather bleak personality of Puritan New England, Minister Michael Wigglesworth, who had in his time great influence on his community ipso facto. Mr. Doomsday, as he was called, kept a diary that reveals the abyss that a Puritan soul could fall into while struggling for perfection, which was unbreakable communion with God.
When we read The Trial and In the Penal Colony together, we read about the logic of law, crime, punishment, and guilt. Of course, we cannot know the law, or, as Kafka writes, we cannot enter the law. I interpret the idea in this way: the law opens a gate to the truth. Alas, no one can enter the law, or come to know the truth, as Kafka says. The consequences are devastating: one cannot know the name of one’s own crime, which is to say guilt is eternal and permanent; nothing can absolve us. Only one solution exists. Josef K. in The Trial should have committed suicide like the Officer in “Penal Colony.” That is to say, perhaps, that you always are your own judge and executioner. Guilt cannot be doubted and thus, you are doomed. Both narratives are cruel and ruthless in their own way in their moral pessimism.
In chapters 9 and 10 of their book Roman but Not Catholic, Kenneth Collins and Jerry Walls criticize the Roman Catholic positions on the Eucharist as a sacrifice and on the ministerial priesthood. I reply to their historical and theological objections, and defend the belief that the Eucharistic sacrifice, the Mass, is a re-presentation, or making present, of Jesus’s redemptive sacrifice on Calvary, and a key component in God’s incarnational strategy for redeeming us.
Two books in C.S. Lewis’s young adult fantasy series Chronicles of Narnia - The Horse and His Boy and The Last Battle - paint an uncomfortable portrait of the Calormen, the traditional foil for the Narnians. Throughout the text, the Calormen are clearly marked both culturally and racially as Middle Eastern, perhaps specifically as Turkish or Arab in their socio-political power structure with harems, arranged marriages, and facial hair designating status. Even Tashbaan, the capital city of Calormen, reads somewhat like a description of Istanbul. Throughout these two books, the Calormen are portrayed as a sinister and conquest-driven culture threatening the freedom enjoyed by Narnia. This textual indictment is fairly consistent. In demonizing this group, Lewis took part in a literary tradition extending back hundreds of years, a tradition that has enjoyed renewed resonance with increased fears over the growth of Islam. From Sir John Mandeville to post-9/11 concerns over terrorism, western depictions of Islam have often revolved around fear and distrust. The Last Battle is particularly problematic in its allegorical depictions of Islam, as Lewis seems to suggest that salvation is only reserved for those who follow the lion Aslan, clearly marked throughout the series as a stand-in for Jesus Christ.
RES 12 (2/2020), p. 210-227 DOI: 10.2478/ress-2020-0015
Gott im Andern.
bei Chiara Lubich
Chiara Lubich (1920-2008) is well known as founder of the Focolare Movement
with its large ecumenical commitment, but not so much in her mystical experience
and writings, not yet published in full. In her experience of faith, especially in the
mystical period called Paradise ’49, lies the spiritual ground of her engagement
in worldwide dialogue. ‘Unity’ (John 17,21) and ‘Jesus Forsaken’ (as a speci!c
understanding of redemption) are the two sides of
mother, which often conceals the faults and the sins of the children, to the
brutal love that snatches what it believes as deserved, to the strength to believe in love
as salvation, as redemption, as many forms to illustrate and to dramatically represent
such an old theme, yet always different. The personal approach of the double
distribution formed by the young 3rd degree actor students, probing their own
interiority and sensibility, nuances and enhances the evolutionary line of characters’
destiny on stage in an extremely profound performance.