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References Enker WE, Thaler HT, Cranor ML, Polyak T. Total mesorectal excision in the operative treatment of carcinoma of the rectum. J Am Coll Surg 1995; 181: 335-46. Heald RJ, Moran BJ, Ryall RD, Sexton R, MacFarlane JK. Rectal cancer: the Basingstoke experience of total mesorectal excision, 1978-1997. Arch Surg 1998; 133: 894-9. Kapiteijn E, Marijnen CA, Nagtegaal ID, Putter H, Steup WH, Wiggers T, et al. Preoperative radiotherapy combined with total mesorectal excision for resectable rectal cancer. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 638-46. Sauer R, Fietkau

References 1. Cipe G, Muslumanoglu M, Yardimci E, Memmi N, Aysan E. Intersphincteric Resection and Coloanal Anastomosis in Treatment of Distal Rectal Cancer. Int J Surg Oncol. 2012. doi: 10.1155/2012/581258 2. Musio D, De Felice F, Bulzonetti N, et al. Neoadjuvant-intensifi ed treatment for rectal cancer: Time to change? World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19(20): 3052-3061. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i20.3052 3. Lindsetmo RO, Joh YG, Delaney CP. Surgical treatment for rectal cancer: An international perspective on what the medical gastroenterologist needs to know. World J

References 1. Bisceglia G, Mastrodonato N, Tardio B, et al. Intermediate neoadjuvant adiotherapy for T3 low/middle rectal cancer: Postoperative outcomes of a non-controlled clinical trial. 4294367 Oncotarget. 2014;5(22):11143-11153.PMCID:4294367 2. Mulsow J, Winter DC. Sphincter preservation for distal rectal cancer - a goal worth achieving at all costs? World J Gastroenterol 2011;17(7):855-861.doi:10.3748/wjg.v17.i7.855 3. Spanos C P. Intersphincteric resection for low rectal cancer: An overview. Int J Surg Oncol. 2012;2012:241512.doi:10.1155/2012/241512 4

References Sauer R, Becker H, Hohenberger W, Rodel C, Wittekind C, Fietkau R, et al. Preoperative versus postoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer. N Engl J Med 2004; 351 : 1731-40. Conde S, Borrego M, Teixeira T, Teixeira R, Corbal M, Sá A, et al. Impact of neoadjuvant chemoradiation on pathologic response and survival of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 2010; 15 : 51-9. Velenik V, Oblak I, Anderluh F. Long-term results from a randomized phase II trial of neoadjuvant combined-modality therapy for locally

References 1. Cipe G, Muslumanoglu M, Yardimci E, Memmi N, Aysan E, Intersphincteric Resection and Coloanal Anastomosis in Treatment of Distal Rectal Cancer, Int J Surg Oncol. 2012; 2012: 581258. Published online 2012 May 29. doi: 10.1155/2012/581258 2. Musio D, De Felice F, Bulzonetti N et al., Neoadjuvant-intensified treatment for rectal cancer: Time to change?, World J Gastroenterol. 2013 May 28; 19(20): 3052-3061. Published online 2013 May 28. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19. i20.3052 3. Schiessel R, Novi G, Holzer B et al., Technique and Long-Term Results of

Introduction Combined chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by total mesorectal excision (TME) is the standard treatment for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. 1 This approach led to significantly enhanced tumor control, with local recurrence rates of < 10%. Preoperative chemotherapy induces changes in both gross appearance of the surgical specimen and its pathological features. Pathologic tumor response to therapy is an important prognostic factor for long-term prognosis. Moreover, patients with complete pathologic response to neoadjuvant treatment have

Introduction Restaging locally advanced rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is critical in making therapeutic decisions based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The diagnostic performance of this radiological method is reduced in the restaging of patients undergoing neadjuvant therapy, because of the difficulty in differentiating residual tumour within radiotherapy induced fibrosis. 1 - 3 Several publications of the last decade reported the potential use of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) through its apparent diffusion

Introduction More than half of the patients with rectal cancer present with locally advanced stage of disease and are treated with combination of preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by total mesorectal excision (TME) and adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil or capecitabine with or without oxaliplatin. With this approach decreased 5 year local recurrence rates to approximately 5–10% has been observed. However, good local control did not result in better survival due to high, more than 30% rate of distant recurrence, which remains the leading cause

References Sauer R, Becker H, Hohenberger W, Rodel C, Wittekind C, Fietkau R., et al. Preoperative versus postoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 1731-40. Dahlberg M, Glimelius B, Graf W, P hlman L. Preoperative irradiation affects functional results after surgery for rectal cancer: Results from a randomised study. Dis Colon Rectum 1998; 41 : 543-49. Sofić A, Šehović N, Bešlić Š, Prnjavorac B, Bilalović N, Čaluk J, et al. MR rectum imaging with ultra sound gel as instrumental contrast media in tubulovillous adenoma

References 1. MacFarlane JK, Ryall RD, Heald RJ. Mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. Lancet. 1993;341(8843):457-60. 2. Carlsen E, Schlichting E, Guldvog I, Johnson E, Heald RJ. Effect of the introduction of total mesorectal excision for the treatment of rectal cancer. Br J Surg. 1998;85(4):526-9. 3. Van der Pas MH, Haglind E, Cuesta MA, Fürst A, Lacy AM, Hop WC, et al. Colorectal cancer Laparoscopic or Open Resection II (COLOR II) Study Group. Laparoscopic versus open surgery for rectal cancer (COLOR II): short-term outcomes of a randomised, phase 3 trial