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hemodialysis study. Kidney Int Suppl 2000; 57: S74-S81. 4. Lindsay RM, Heidenheim PA. Nesrallah G, et al. Minutes to recovery after a hemodialysis session: a simple health-related quality of life question that is reliable, valid and sensitive to change. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 1(5): 952-959. 5. Jaber BL, Lee Y, Collins AJ, et al. FREEDOM Study group. Effect on daily hemodialysis on depressive symptoms and postdialysis recovery time: interim report from the FREEDOM (Following Rehabilitation, Economics and Everyday-Dialysis Outcome Measurements) Study. Am J Kidney Dis 2010

depends on the prevalence of PAP mechanisms over fatigue mechanisms, which is modulated by several factors including, but not limited to, sociodemographic characteristics of subjects like sex ( Russ et al., 2008 ) or training experience ( Kilduff et al., 2007 ), the recovery time ( Gołaś et al., 2016 ; Kilduff et al., 2008 ), and the type, intensity as well as volume of the conditioning activity (CA) performed ( Gołaś et al., 2016 ; Wilson et al., 2013 ). Previous studies indicate that not only explosive, shorter and intensive stimuli can be used as a CA, but also sub


The nanocrystalline powders of pure and Al3+-doped ZnO with hexagonal structure were prepared by a simple hydrothermal decomposition route. The structure and crystal phase of the powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the microstructure by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). All the compositions exhibited a single phase, suggesting a formation of solid solution between Al2O3 and ZnO. DC electrical properties of the prepared nanoparticles were studied by DC conductivity measurements. The indirect heating structure sensors based on pure and doped ZnO as sensitive materials were fabricated on an alumna tube with Au electrodes. Gas-sensing properties of the sensor elements were measured as a function of concentration of dopant, operating temperature and concentrations of the test gases. The pure ZnO exhibited high response to NH3 gas at an operating temperature of 200 °C. Doping of ZnO with Al3+ increased its response towards NH3 and the Al3+-doped ZnO (3.0 wt% Al2O3) showed the maximum response at 175 °C. The selectivity of the sensor elements for NH3 against different reducing gases like LPG, H2S and H2 was studied. The results on response and recovery time were also discussed.

:57-61. 16. Yamauchi M, Takahashi H, Iwasaki H, Namiki A. Respiratory acidosis prolongs, while alkalosis shortens, the duration and recovery time of vecuronium in humans. J Clin Anesth. 2002; 2:98-101. 10.1016/S0952-8180(01)00361-0 17. Gencarelli PJ, Swen J, Koot HW, Miller RD. The effects of hypercarbia and hypocarbia on pancuronium and vecuronium neuromuscular blockades in anesthetized humans. Anesthesiology. 1983; 59:376-80. 18. Funk DI, Crul JF, Pol FM. Effects of changes in acidbase balance on neuromuscular blockade produced by ORG-NC 45. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1980

for a particular gas are important factors. Response and recovery times are defined as the time required for reaching 90 % of the final stable value. Fig. 9 illustrates the response and recovery time of 0.2 M CuO modified ZnO-TiO 2 (with molar ratio 1:1) based thick film to 286 ppm LPG at 185 °C. It indicates that the response and recovery time of the sensor are 30 s and 70 s, respectively. This result may be recommended for practical application of the sensor for LPG detection. Fig. 9 Response and recovery time of 0.2 M CuO modified ZnO-TiO 2 based thick film

preparatory phases to competition rounds – spring and autumn ones among highly qualified elite athletes, namely soccer players. To accomplish this experiment, complete blood count, white blood cells distribution and CD4 + memory T cell subsets (T central memory (T CM ) and T effector memory (T EM )) distributions before, immediately after the progressive test, as well as during recovery time (ca. 17 hours after the test) were determined. Cardiorespiratory fitness measures: maximum oxygen uptake (VO 2max ), maximum heart rate (HR max ), maximum ventilation (V E ), anaerobic

frequency Table 2 Serum selected metabolite levels, lipid profile and enzyme activities of both participants determined before (pre-exercise) and after the progressive exercise test on a rowing ergometer until exhaustion (5 minutes post-exercise and during recovery, 17 hours after the test) Male participant Female participant Preexcercise Post-exercise Recovery time Pre-exercise Post-exercise Recovery time glucose [mmol/L] 4.6 5.6 4.9 5.3 6.2 5.5 creatinine [μmol/L] 101 91 93 82 91 83 urea [mmol/L] 7.5 7.1 6.6 6.2 7.5 6.5 albumin [g/L] 48.8 54.2 49.6 47.0 49.5 46.2 total

. This experiment included a study of the impact of maximal effort on differentiation and distribution of selected T cell subsets. To realise this experiment, CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocyte subsets related to their differentiation before, immediately after the progressive test, as well as during recovery time (about 17 hours after the test) were determined. Cardiorespiratory fitness measures: maximum oxygen uptake (VO 2 max), maximum ventilation (VE), anaerobic threshold (AT), respiratory quotient (RQ; volume ratio of emitted CO 2 to oxygen uptake); respiratory

included individualized recovery time between the conditioning exercise and the explosive activity. Additionally, the research groups were homogenous and included only competitive athletes of similar age and training experience. Material and Methods Experimental approach to the problem Effects of PAP on performance in explosive motor activities in the literature are widely described, but still there are many unknowns. Most of the data applies to recreational athletes and such knowledge is not always useful for competitive sports training. In addition, there is no


The purpose of this study was to determine test–retest reliability for peak barbell velocity (Vpeak) during the bench press (BP) and bench press throw (BPT) exercises for loads corresponding to 20–70% of one-repetition maximum (1RM). Thirty physically active collegiate men conducted four evaluations after a preliminary BP 1RM determination (1RM·bw-1 = 1.02 ± 0.16 kg·kg-1). In counterbalanced order, participants performed two sessions of the BP in one week and two sessions of the BPT in another week. Recovery time between sessions within the same week was 48 hours and recovery time between sessions of different weeks was 120 hours. On each day of evaluation the individual load-velocity relationship at each tenth percentile (20–70% of 1RM) in a Smith machine for the BP or BPT was determined. Participants performed three attempts per load, but only the best repetition (highest Vpeak), registered by a linear position transducer, was analysed. The BPT resulted in a significantly lower coefficient of variation (CV) for the whole load–velocity relationship, compared to the BP (2.48% vs. 3.22%; p = 0.040). Test–retest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranged from r = 0.94-0.85 for the BPT and r = 0.91-0.71 for the BP (p < 0.001). The reduction in the biological within-subject variation in BPT exercise could be promoted by the braking phase that obligatorily occurs during a BP executed with light or moderate loads. Therefore, we recommend the BPT exercise for a most accurate assessment of upper-body velocity.