In the present study, the real-time monitoring system is developed based on the wireless sensor network (WSN) and power line communication (PLC) employed in the 3,000-ton-class training ship. The WSN consists of sensor nodes, router, gateway and middleware. The PLC is composed of power lines, modems, Ethernet gateway and phase-coupler. The basic tests show that the ship has rather good environments for the wired and wireless communications. The developed real-time monitoring system is applied to recognize the thermal environments of main-engine room and one cabin in the ship. The main-engine room has lots of heat sources and needs careful monitoring to satisfy safe operation condition or detect any human errors beforehand. The monitoring is performed in two regions near the turbocharger and cascade tank, considered as heat sources. The cabin on the second deck is selected to monitor the thermal environments because it is close to the heat source of main engine. The monitoring results of the cabin show the thermal environment is varied by the human activity. The real-time monitoring for the thermal environment would be useful for the planning of the ventilation strategy based on the traces of the human activity against inconvenient thermal environments as well as the recognizing the temperature itself in each cabin.
Road freight transport in urban areas (city logistics) is under study worldwide, especially during the last years, mainly due to its negative impacts to the environment and to the efficient operation of the road network. The modern approach to deal with this rising issue includes the deployment of strategies and measures that take into consideration the conditions prevailing in each study area. In order the decision makers to adopt the proper measures and define the strategy, it is vital for them to have full knowledge of the way an Urban Road Freight Transportation (URFT) system is organized and functions in the field. For this to happen, the decision makers must have under their disposal reliable real time data. After all URFT systems evolve through time and space and it is s crucial that the necessary data not only will be collected correctly but also they will be accessible anytime and anywhere. In this paper a new approach is proposed in order to achieve real time monitoring for URFT systems in order to provide the decision makers with all the necessary data for the case of Greece.
A real-time monitoring and regulation system for metalworking fluids is being constructed to be installed in the Centre of excellence of 5-axis machining at the Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava. The article is focused on the description of the main components of the monitoring system and preliminary characterization of the software utilized in the regulation. The monitoring system will contain four probes to record real time values of pH, conductivity, temperature and concentration. After processing of recorded data by the LabVIEW software, an adjustment of the Metalworking fluid in the reservoir tank will be realized by the regulation part of the proposed system to optimum properties of the fluid, by adding water or concentrate. The designed device will provide an easy system which will control the quality of used metalworking fluid during its lifetime and maintain it on its optimum condition without human operator’s assistance.
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Some small and medium-sized coal mines are mining beyond their mining boundary driven by profit. The illegal activities cause many mine disasters but effective supervision is very hard to achieve, especially for underground coal mining. Nowadays, artificial blasting operation is widely used in tunneling or mining in small and medium-sized coal mines. A method for monitoring the underground mining position by monitoring the blasting source position is firstly introduced in this paper. The blasting vibration waves are picked up by the detectors and dealt by the signal acquisition sub-station, and then sent to the principal computer. The blasting source is located by the principal computer and displayed in the mine’s electronic map. The blasting source position is located in 10 seconds after the first P wave reaching the detector, whose error is registered within 20 meters by field-proven method. Auto-monitoring of the underground mining position in real-time is solved better and management level is improved using this method.
Power transformer is one of the most important pieces of equipment in the grid to reliably and efficiently transmit power to the consumers. Asset management and protection are the best concepts for prolongation of transformer lifespan as well as for the increase of grid reliability. This article presents electrical and non-electrical parameter-based power transformer monitoring and protection. Various data such as core flux, age of asset, heat generation, current harmonics and temperature are monitored in real time and processed accordingly to enhance the working capability of the transformer. The proposed scheme is successfully tested on 15 kVA laboratory transformer using Arm CORTEX-M4 processor. A Fitness Function (Ff) is estimated from the collected data to examine the working condition of the transformer. Moreover, voltage, current and power-based inrush detection as well as Adaptive Power Differential Protection (APDP) are applied to protect the transformer against fault. The hardware implementation and result validation prove the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in enhancing reliability of the distribution grid.
Crystallization of the drug entacapone from binary solvent mixtures was monitored in situ using a Raman optical probe. The recorded Raman spectra and statistical analysis, which included the principal components method and indirect hard modeling made it possible to estimate the starting point of crystallization, to assess crystallization temperatures and to provide information on the polymorphic content of the mixture. It was established that crystallization temperatures were proportional to the volume content of the solvent in mixtures. The samples were also evaluated off-line via Raman spectroscopy and SWAXS. The collected data showed the presence of forms b and g in all solvent mixtures. In a toluene/methanol 30:70 mixture, in addition to forms b and g, at least one of the forms A, D or a was also indicated by SWAXS. The results have shown that the presence of a particular polymorph is strongly dependent on the nature and portion of the solvent in the binary solvent mixture.
cells during the fermentation step. The online measurement of carbon dioxide in liquid (grape juice to wine) can be conducted by measuring changes in the medium resistance as a result of CO 2 bubbles. Thus, the fermentation kinetics could be controlled (or monitored) by the measurement of the total carbon dioxide [ 5 ]. It is known that carbon dioxide bubbles increase the value of the medium resistance [ 6 ]. In 2009, Perez et al. described a method for the real-timemonitoring of the fermentation of sugar by yeast cells. These researchers measured changes in the
Automation of industrial activities aims to improve the efficiency of the productive processes while reducing costs and increasing safety. In industrial laundries, detergent management is a key factor that can lead to severe economic and environmental impacts if left uncontrolled. This paper documents the solution devised for an integrated detergent control and supervision system based on Internet-of Things paradigms. This solution follows from a problem put forward by the laundry services of Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Bragança, located in Portugal, to the Polytechnic Institute of Bragança. In order to keep track of the detergent in a centralised dispensing system, a Wi-Fi based measurement system was developed which enables real-time monitoring of the chemicals level. In order to facilitate the physical installation of the developed hardware, a custom-made enclosure was designed and 3D printed. The acquired data is then sent to a database connected to a data processing web-based platform which is responsible for the analytics.