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Abstract

The refined rapeseed oil were carefully studied in recent years because they may constitute a raw material for biodegradable lubricants getting organic. These oils are an alternative to synthetic mineral oils. This article presents rheological behavior of refined rapeseed oil. The dynamic viscosity of refined rapeseed oil was determined at temperatures range between 313 - 363 K and shear rates range from 3.3 - 120 s-1. For temperature ranging between 313 - 363 K refined rapeseed oil has a Bingham fluid behavior.

Finland. J. Essent. Oil Res., 4 , 375–380. Tomsone L., Kruma Z. (2015). Stability of rapeseed oil with horseradish Amorica rusticana L. and lovage Levisticum officinale L. extracts under medium temperature accelerated storage conditions. Agron. Res. , 13 (4), 1120–1130.

I., Mortensen A., Lütjohann D:. Increased plant sterol and stanol levels in brain of Watanabe rabbits fed rapeseed oil derived plant sterol or stanol esters. British J Nutr 2007, 98, 890-899. 5. Gauthier M.S., Couturier K., Latour J.G., Lavoie J.M.: Concurrent exercise prevents high-fat-induced macrovesicular hepatic steatosis. J Appl Physiol 2003, 94, 2127-2134. 6. Goudriaan J.R., Dahlmans V.E., Teusink B., Ouwens D.M., Febbraio M., Maassen J.A., Romijn J.A., Havekes L.M., Voshol P.J.: CD36 deficiency increases insulin sensitivity in muscle, but induces insulin

References 1. AVL Emission Test Systems GmbH. (2007). AVL SESAM FTIR. User’s Manual. Gaggenau, Germany: AVL Emission Test Systems GmbH. 2. Birkavs, A., & Dukulis, I. (2011). Development of experimental equipment for vegetable oil fuel research. In 17th International Scientific Conference ‘Research for Rural Development’, Volume 1, 18-20 May 2011 (pp. 173-178). Jelgava, Latvia: Latvia University of Agriculture. 3. Dukulis, I., Birkavs, A., & Birzietis, G. (2010). Investigation of flowability of rapeseed oil and diesel fuel blends in winter conditions. In

2004, 13/54, 87–100. 27. Wisniewski J.R., Friedrich A., Keller T., Mann M., Koepsell H.: The impact of high-fat diet on metabolism and immune defense in small intestine mucosa. J Proteome Res 2015, 14, 353−365. 28. Xu J., Zhou X., Gao H., Chang Ch., Deng Q., Huang Q., Ma J., Wan Z., Yang J., Huang F.: Micronutrients-fortified rapeseed oil improves hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet. Lipids Health Dis 2013, 12, 28. 29. Yang R., Li W., Shi Y., Le G.: Lipoic acid prevents high-fat diet-induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress: A

Rapeseed Oil as Renewable Resource for Polyol Synthesis

Vegetable oils are one of the most important platform chemicals due to their accessibility, specific structure of oils and low price.

Rapeseed oil (RO) polyols were prepared by amidization of RO with diethanolamine (DEA). To determine the kinetics of amidization reaction, experiments were carried out. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), amine (NH) value was determined. Group contribution method by Fedor‵s was used to calculate solubility parameters, van der Waals volume was calculated by Askadskii. Obtained polyol‵s OH and NH value are from 304 up to 415 mg KOH/g. RO polyols synthesis meets the criteria of "green chemistry".

In the present study, reaction of RO amidization with DEA was investigated, as well as optimum conditions for polyol synthesis was established to obtain polyols for polyurethane production. Calculations of solubility parameter and cohesion energy density were calculated, as RO polyols will be used as side chains in polymers, and solubility parameter will be used to explain properties of polymers.

Abstract

The demand for petroleum products is increasing day by day, but mentioned products have limited sources and they are hazardous for environment. Therefore international organizations for example: International Maritime Organization, start to make restrictive requirements application petroleum products for safety environmental, what is the main reason of the use of the alternative liquids. One of the most popular environmental friendly, renewable and less toxic oils is vegetable oils. They can used as fuels and lubricants. The vegetable oils are mainly triglycerides, which contain three hydroxyl groups and long chain unsaturated free fatty acids attached at the hydroxyl group by ester linkages. They have good properties of lubricity, viscosity and thermal.

In this article focused only on lubricants. Among a wide group of vegetable oils chosen rapeseed oil. Rapeseed is the most important and most efficient oilseed crop in Europe and it is the most common basestocks for vegetable-based lubricants. It conducted research into pure rapeseed oil and its different quantity additives to traditional marine motor oil – Marinol RG 1240. The two basic physic-chemical parameters, they were flash point and dependence of viscosity and temperature, were compare and assess. It has been proven that vegetable oils have a higher ignition temperature than mineral oils and a smaller viscosity change in the range of temperature presented.

References [1] Engelmann, K., Dressler, D., Haas, R., Remmele, E., Thuneke, K., Climate protection by rapeseed oil fuel , TFZ-Kompakt, No. 13, Straubing: Technologie- und Förderzentrum im Kompetenzzentrum für Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (TFZ), 16 pages, Straubing 2017. [2] DIN 51605:2016-01, Fuels for vegetable oil compatible combustion engines – Fuel from rapeseed oil – Requirements and test methods . [3] DIN 51623:2015-12, Fuels for vegetable oil compatible combustion engines – Fuel from vegetable oil – Requirements and test methods . [4] Ettl, J., Bernhardt, H

References [1] Wloka, J., Hubert, A. Wachtmeister, G., Injection spray comparison of diesel fuel and cold pressed rapeseed oil fuel , Proceedings of 23rd Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems ILASS – Europe 2010, Brno, Czech Republic 2010. [2] Pasymiuk, P., Golimowski, W., The study of rapeseed oil production technology of reduced macronutrients contents as an engine fuel , Journal of Research and Applications in Agricultural Engineering, Vol. 58 (1), 2013. [3] McDonnell, K, Ward, S., Leahy, J. J. McNulty, P., Properties of rapeseed oil for

REFERENCES Kalam, M.A., Masjuki, H.H., Haeng, Muk Cho, Mosarof, M.H., Md. Iqbal Mahmud, Mohammad Asaduzzaman Chowdhury, Zulkifli, N.W.M. (2017) Influences of thermal stability, and lubrication performance of biodegradable oil as an engine oil for improving the efficiency of heavy duty diesel engine. Fuel, 196, pp. 36-46. Malinowska, M. (2017) The full or partial replacement of mineral marine engine oil with vegetable oil, on the example of rapeseed oil. Journal of KONES, 24, 1, pp. 247-255. Erhan S.Z., Asadauskas S. (2000) Lubricant basestocks from vegetable oils