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. Porstendörfer, J., Zock, Ch., & Reineking, A. (2000). Aerosol size distribution of the radon progeny in outdoor air. J. Environ. Radioact., 51, 37-48. 5. Cheng, Y. S., Su, Y. F., Newton, G. J., & Yeh, H. C. (1992). Use of a graded diffusion battery in measuring the activity size distributions of thoron progeny. J. Aerosol Sci., 23(4), 361-372. 6. Reineking, A., Becker, K. H., & Porstendörfer, J. (1988). Measurements of the activity size distributions of the short-lived radon daughters in the indoor and outdoor environment. Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 24, 245-250. 7. Reineking, A

Abstract

Most people spend the majority of their time in indoor environments where the level of harmful pollutants is often significantly higher than outdoors. Radon (222Rn) and its decay products are the example of radioactive pollutants. These radioisotopes are the main source of ionizing radiation in non-industrial buildings. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of air-conditioning system on radon and its progeny concentrations and thus on the effective dose. The measurements were carried out in the auditorium at the Environmental Engineering Faculty (Lublin University of Technology, Poland). Measurements of radon and its progeny (in attached and unattached fractions) as well as measurements of the following indoor air parameters were performed in two air-conditioning (AC) operation modes: AC ON and AC ON/OFF. The air supply rate and air recirculation were taken into consideration. The separation of radon progeny into attached and unattached fractions allowed for determining, respectively, the dose conversion factor (DCF) and the inhalation dose for teachers and students in the auditorium. A considerable increase of the mean radon progeny concentrations from 1.2 Bq/m3 to 5.0 Bq/m3 was observed in the AC ON/OFF mode compared to the AC ON mode. This also resulted in the increase of the inhalation dose from 0.005 mSv/y to 0.016 mSv/y (for 200 h/year). Furthermore, the change of the air recirculation rate from 0% to 80% resulted in a decrease of the mean radon concentration from 30 Bq/m3 to 12 Bq/m3 and the reduction of the mean radon progeny concentration from 1.4 Bq/m3 to 0.8 Bq/m3. This resulted in the reduction of the inhalation dose from 0.006 mSv/y to 0.003 mSv/y.

., Uhde, E., & Salthammer, T. (2013). Does e-cigarette consumption cause passive vaping? Indoor Air , 23 (1), 25–31. 16. Yuness, M., Mohamed, A., AbdEl-hady, M., Moustafa, M., & Nazmy, H. (2015). Effect of indoor activity size distribution of 222 Rn progeny in-depth dose estimation. Appl. Radiat. Isot. , 97 , 34–39. 17. Yuness, M., Mohamed, A., Nazmy, H., Moustafa, M., & Abd El-hady, M. (2016). Indoor activity size distribution of the short-lived radon progeny. Stoch. Environ. Res. Risk Assess. , 30 (1), 167–174. 18. Mohamed, A., Abd El-hady, M., Moustafa, M

atmosphere (0-300m) in connection with changing meteorological conditions. U.D.C.551.594.1. Izv. Geophys ., 3 , 414–421. 18. Hosler, C. R. (1966). Meteorological effects on atmospheric concentrations of radon (Rn222), RaB (Pb214), and RaC (Bi214) near the ground. Mon. Weather Rev ., 94 , 89. 19. Allegrini, I., Febo, A., Pasini, A., & Schiarini, S. (1994). Monitoring of the nocturnal mixed layer by means of participate radon progeny measurement. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos ., 99 , 18765–18777. DOI: 10.1029/94JD00783. 20. Desideri, D., Roselli, C., Feduzi, L., & Meli, M. A

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environmental radioactivity surrounding Xiangshan uranium deposits, Jiangxi province, Eastern China. Nukleonika , 63 (4), 113–121. DOI: 10.2478/nuka-2018-0014. 9. Horng, M. C., & Jiang, S. H. (2004). In situ measurements of gamma-ray intensity from radon progeny in rainwater. Radiat. Meas ., 38 , 23–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1350-4487(03)00285-3 . 10. Baker, S. I. (1999). Detection of radon decay products in rainwater. Health Phys ., 77 (5), S71–S76. DOI: 10.1097/00004032-199911001-00005. 11. Moriizumi, J., Kondo, D., Kojima, Y., Liu, H., Hirao, S., & Yamazawa, H

, D., Chambers, S. D., & Vaupotič, J. (2019b). Radon-based atmospheric stability classification in contrasting sub-Alpine and sub-Mediterranean environments. J. Environ. Radioact. , 203 , 125–134. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2019.03.010. 9. Moses, H., Stehney, A. F., & Lucas, H. J. (1960). The effect of meteorological variables upon the vertical and temporal distributions of atmospheric radon. J. Geophys. Res. , 65 , 1223–1238. 10. Perrino, C., Pietrodangelo, A., & Febo, A. (2001). An atmospheric stability index based on radon progeny measurements for the evaluation

. International Atomic Energy Agency 2014 Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources: International basic safety standards Vienna IAEA 5. Kávási, N., Somlai, J., Vigh, T., Tokonami, S., Ishikawa, T., Sorimachi, A., & Kovács, T. (2009). Difficulties in the dose estimate of workers originated from radon and radon progeny in a manganese mine. Radiat. Meas. , 44 , 300–305. 10.1016/j.radmeas.2009.03.014 . Kávási N. Somlai J. Vigh T. Tokonami S. Ishikawa T. Sorimachi A. Kovács T. 2009 Difficulties in the dose estimate of workers originated from radon and radon progeny in

References 1. UNSCEAR. (2000). Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. New York: UN. UNSCEAR 2000 Sources and effects of ionizing radiation New York UN 2. Guo, Q., Shimo, M., & Ikebe, M. (1992). The study of thoron and radon progeny concentration in dwellings in Japan. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. , 45 , 357–359. Guo Q. Shimo M. Ikebe M. 1992 The study of thoron and radon progeny concentration in dwellings in Japan Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 45 357 359 3. Iida, T., Nurishi, R., & Okamoto, K. (1996). Passive integrating 222 Rn and 220 Rn cup monitor with CR-39 detector

a power-moderated mean. Metrologia , 52 , S200–S212. 16. Hofmann, W., Arvela, H. S., Harley, N. H., Marsh, J. W., McLaughlin, J., Röttger, A., & Tokonami, S. (2012). Principles of radon and radon progeny detection systems and measurements. Journal of the ICRU , 12 (2), 71–94.