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. Smoliński, T., Rogowski, M., Brykała, M., Pyszynska, M., & Chmielewski, A. G. (2018). Studies on hydrometallurgical processes using nuclear techniques to be applied in copper industry. I. Application of 64Cu radiotracer for investigation of copper ore leaching. Nukleonika, 63(4), 123-129. DOI: 10.2478/nuka-2018-0015. 24. Bujdoso, E., Feher, I., & Kardos, G. (1973). Activation and decay tables of radioisotopes. Amsterdam, New York: Elsevier. 25. Jaroszewicz, J., Marcinkowska, Z., & Pytel, K. (2014). Production of fi ssion product 99Mo using high-enriched uranium plates in

). New Delhi: McGraw-Hill. 7. Peavey, H. S., Rowe, D. R., & Tchobanoglous, G. (2013). Environmental engineering (3rd ed.). New Delhi: McGraw-Hill. 8. International Atomic Energy Agency. (2008). Radiotracer residence time distribution method for industrial and environmental applications . Vienna: IAEA. (Training Course Series No. 31). Available from . 9. International Atomic Energy Agency. (2011). Radiotracer applications in

References 1. Charlton, J. S. (1986). Radioisotope techniques for problem solving in industrial process plants . Glasgow: Leonard Hill. 2. International Atomic Energy Agency. (1990). Guidebook on radioisotope tracers in industry . Vienna: IAEA. (Technical Report Series no. 316). 3. Zitny, R., & Thyn, J. (1996). Programs for residence time distribution analysis, RTD software manuals for data analysis of radiotracer experiments . Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency.

., Chmielewski, A. G., Dziewoński, Z. R., Rahimi, H., Naimpour, A., Amini, A., Abedinzadeh, A., & Khalilipour, E. (1995). Radiotracer glass furnaces investigations. Nukleonika, 40(1), 67-80. 28. Petryka, L., & Przewlocki, K. (1983). Radiotracer investigations of benefi ciation copper ore in the industrial fl otation process. Isotopenpraxis Isot. Environ. Health Stud., 19(10), 339-341. 29. Figueiredo, A. M. G., Avristcher, W., Masini, E. A., Diniz, S. C., & Abrão, A. (2002). Determination of lanthanides (La, Ce, Nd, Sm) and other elements in metallic gallium by instrumental

). Measurement of tumor hypoxia in spontaneous canine sarcomas. Vet. Radiol. Ultrasoun., 46(4), 348-354. 14. Kilian, K., Chabecki, B., Kiec, J., Kunka, A., Panas, B., Wójcik, M., & Pekal, A. (2014). Synthesis, quality control and determination of metallic impurities in 18F-fl udeoxyglucose production process. Rep. Pract. Oncol. Radiother., 19, 22-31. 15. Anzellotti, A., Bailey, J., Ferguson, D., McFarland, A., Bochev, P., Andreev, G., Awasthi, V., & Brown- -Proctor, C. (2015). Automated production and quality testing of [18F]labeled radiotracers using the BG75 system. J

Hogan and Ericson. 11 However, even when CTG/SG started to be visible on imaging, their proper classification was not essentially crucial from oncological point of view, as erroneous taking them for normal or benign lymph nodes did not generally cause any harm to the patient. The circumstances changed after the introduction of a new radiotracer to multimodal positron emission tomography/computer tomography (PET/CT) imaging. The prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted radiotracers labelled with radioactive gallium (Ga-68) used for the primary staging and

-FET, added in 2 mL of medium in each flask for varying incubation times (20, 40, 60, 90, 120 min for 18 F-FCH; 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 min for 18 F-FET) under 5% CO 2 gaseous conditions. For experiments with 18 F-FCH and 18 F-FET, radiotracer incubation was done in complete medium. Control samples underwent the same procedure as other samples, but they were incubated with 100 μL of saline instead of a radiotracer. Cell kinetic studies and uptake evaluation The cellular radiotracer uptake was determined with a 3 × 3″ NaI(Tl) pinhole 16 × 40 mm gamma counter (Raytest

Scatterogram: a method for outlining the body during lymphoscintigraphy without using external flood source

Background. We evaluated the feasibility of outlining the body with scattered photons using a low dose intradermal injection of the radiotracer.

Patients and methods. Sixty breast cancer patients were included into the study. 30 minutes post radiotracer injection static lymphoscintigraphy images were acquired using low energy high resolution collimator in anterior and lateral views. For patients with 2-day protocol another set of images was taken 20 hours post-injection. Two photopeaks were used during imaging: 1-Tc-99m (130-150 keV) and 2- Scatter photons (60-120). The fusion image of these two images was constructed by NM-NM fusion workflow of the workstation. The usual body outline of the patients was also acquired in 20 cases using the external flood source without moving the patients from their positions.

Results. The early (30 minute image) scatterograms of the patients clearly showed the contour of the body. The 20 hour scatterograms were not as high quality as the corresponding early images. The constructed overlaid images showed the location of the axillary sentinel nodes and the body contours clearly for early scatterograms but not the delayed (20 hour) ones. The processing of the images for the reconstruction of overlaid scatterograms took the mean time of 10±5 seconds.

Conclusions. Imaging the scattered photons is feasible for the intradermal low dose injection of the radiotracers in order to outline the body contour. This imaging method does not increase the radiation exposure of the patients or operators and does not extend the time of imaging either.


A method of 11C-methionine synthesis using ‘bubbling’ method is presented. 11C-methionine was synthesized via 11C methylation from L-cysteine thiolactone (2 mg) in a 300 μL solution of 2:1:1 (v/v) 1 M NaOH, ethanol, and water at ambient temperature (85°C, 5 min). The radiochemical purity of radiotracer was higher than 99% and enantiomeric purity (L-11C-methionine) was 91.6 ± 0.4%. The final product met the requirements of European Pharmacopoeia monograph. The proposed 11C-methionine synthesis is a reliable tool for routine manufacturing in clinical applications and animal studies.


A novel bisphosphonate derivative (1-aminoethane-1,1-diyl)diphosphonic acid (AEDP) has been prepared and successfully labeled with 99mTc at high labeling yields. The in vivo biodistribution of 99mTc-AEDP has been investigated and compared with two reference compounds Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) and Tc-99m (1-hydroxyethylidene) diphosphonate (99mTc-HEDP). The biodistribution studies have demonstrated a high uptake of the radiotracer 99mTc-AEDP in the bone and a rapid clearance from the blood (such as the two technetium-labeled bone imaging agents in current use: 99mTc-MDP and 99mTc-HEDP). Additionally, the scintigraphic images of 99mTc-AEDP in normal rats have revealed high selective skeletal uptake.