The principle of the free movement of goods in one of great importance for the European Union and for in general and for the Internal Market and the European citizens in particular. Starting from the fact that the Internal market is considered to be a critical element for the present and future prosperity of the European Union in a globalized world, the objective of the present text is to present and analyse, in a concise manner, the main legal provisions that govern this field. In order to accomplish this objective we made reference to the following aspects: considerations regarding the role and importance of the free movement of goods in the European internal market; the role of the European Commission within the internal market and implicitly for the free movement of goods; Treaty provisions governing the free movement of goods; and related instruments of secondary law related to the free movement of goods.
This paper analyses the decision-making processes behind the reform of a policy that had caused significant controversy for over a decade. At 8 p.m. on 21 November 2000 the Minister of State for the Environment, Bobby Molloy, TD, signed S.I. No. 367/2000 – Road Traffic (Public Service Vehicles) (Amendment) (No. 3) into law. This statutory instrument provided ‘for the full resumption of taxi licensing’ and ‘the revocation of regulatory provisions involving quantitative restrictions on the licensing of taxis and hackneys’. With the stroke of a pen, Molloy had effectively ended the taxi licensees’ de facto 21-year control of public service vehicle licensing policy. The paper finds Molloy’s decision to have been a significant policy improvement as it brought about a substantially better taxi service. In addition, the paper shows that even with strong evidence of policy failure, its reform can take a considerable time. With regard to the four-factor framework of institutions, ideology, interests and irrationality, I find that the institutions of the state, while initially facilitating the regulatory capture of the policy by the taxi sector, eventually ensured that this was broken down due to the electoral system and the separation of powers. Up until the reform decision, the interests of the taxi licensees and their political supporters eclipsed the common good. Ideology played a significant role as a backdrop to the policy but ideology was not the primary reason the minister deregulated. Finally, I find that the collective irrationality of the taxi sector leads to an overestimation of their power due to an inability to process the relevant information and collectively agree a reasonable compromise. The key recommendations of the paper are that the means of policy setting should be radically and innovatively overhauled, and that it is imperative that regulators harness the vast information that taxi apps gather in order to improve regulatory outcomes.
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therein were limited to the listing of quantitativerestrictions. In contrast, in the case of the United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement, the Market Access obligation is subject to standstill and ratchet obligations while commitments for the sectors listed are binding. Even though Chile had already made specific commitments in the respective GATS Schedules, the extent and coverage of those commitments in terms of the number of sectors included was very low compared to the commitments made under the Annexes on reservations in the United States-Chile Free Trade
of research. The highest level is named “Level 2”. It includes only the leading and most selective international journals, series, and book publishers. There is also a quantitativerestriction, since the publication channels selected for Level 2 can, only in total, represent up to 20% of the world’s publications in each field. The weighting of publications by type and channel is summarized in Table 1 . Table 1 Publication Points in Norway In channels at (the normal) level 1 In channels at (the high) level 2 Articles in journals and series (ISSN) 1 3 Articles in
international journals, series and book publishers. There is also a quantitativerestriction, since the publication channels selected for Level 2 can only in total represent up to 20% of the world’s publications in each field. The weighting of publications by type and channel is shown in Table 1 . Table 1 Publication points in Norway. Channels at (the normal) level 1 Channels at (the high) level 2 Articles in ISSN-titles 1 3 Articles in ISBN-titles 0.7 1 Books (ISBN-titles) 5 8 Publication points are measured at the level of institutions, not at the level of individual
free trade (or preferential trade) agreements were signed with countries that had entered into such agreements with the Community earlier. After accession, they became adjusted with the requirements of the EU common commercial policy [ Kawecka-Wyrzykowska, 2004 , pp. 88–91].
The adoption of the Community principle of the free movement of goods in relations with the EU-15 and the EU-10 countries involved the following:
the abolition of customs duties and any charges having an equivalent effect,
the elimination of all types of quantitativerestrictions (quotas
integration in Europe in Paris on October 31, 1949, Paul Hoffman, the head of
the Economic Cooperation Administration lectured US lessons on the Europeans
The substance of such integration would be the formation of a single large
market within which quantitativerestriction on the movements of goods,
monetary barriers to the flow of payments and, eventually, all tariffs are
permanently swept away. The fact that we have in the United States a single
market of 156 million consumers has been indispensable to the strength
and efficiency of our
four types of migration costs: individual-specific, direct, resulting from quantitativerestrictions on immigration, and resulting from skill-selective immigration policies. This produces some novel predictions. For example, that migration rate depends on the level of qualitative immigration policy and the variance of schooling in the source country. The model also suggests that a skill-selective policy can have an ambiguous impact on immigration. 3.1.2 The impact of welfare state on migration Rising numbers of immigrants in the United States in the 1990s caused