A graph of the changes in an engine’s operating speed can be used to assess the quality of the combustion in its cylinders. In this paper, the authors carried out tests on a Buckau-Wolf R8VD-136 ship engine, which was directly driving the propeller. This engine is owned by the Laboratory of Marine Engine Rooms at the Maritime University of Szczecin. For standard rotational speeds ranging from 200 to 280 rpm, with increments of 20 rpm, the authors measured the changes in the instantaneous speed for the engine’s normal operating conditions (reference graphs) as well as with one of the cylinders being out of operation. A no-combustion situation was successively introduced into each cylinder for each preset rotational speed. The obtained graphs of the instantaneous speed were then used to determine certain quantitative indicators, which the authors believe can provide information about the technical condition of the engine. The analysis concerned the averaged graphs of the speed under the conditions set for five consecutive engine operating cycles. The indicators that were calculated included the maximum difference in the speed over the engine’s full operating cycle, the uniformity of the engine speed and the differential speed area factor, the latter a term that has been proposed by the authors. The values of the individual indicators that were obtained from the reference graphs and the graphs with no combustion in one of the cylinders were compared. All indicators are sensitive to cylinder misfire. Conclusions were then drawn on the usefulness of these indicators in assessing the condition of an engine.
The research was conducted at the Agriculture Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Suez Canal, during the sesame growing seasons of 2011 and 2012. For studying the impact of insect pollination and nitrogen fertilization on sesame production, the experiment was divided to 13 treatments of open pollination and non open pollination, with three different levels of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and one level of seryalin as biofertilizer. Non opened pollination treatments were covered before the start of flowering period with a perforated net bag, to allow the air to pass through and to prevent insects from approaching the plants. Quantitative and qualitative indicators, were measured as follows: rate of capsule per plant, capsule weight, rate of seeds in each capsule, weight of 1000 seeds, germination (%), seedlings vigour and oil content (%). Results clearly demonstrate that qualitative and quantitative indicators of sesame crop was significantly increased with opened pollination and with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer level up to 40 kg N/feedan-1 plus or minus seryalin, in reclaimed sandy soils, in Ismailia, Egypt.
The present paper examines selected urbanistic parameters of public amenities in rural residential areas in the suburban hinterland of Bratislava, which has undergone a rapid development in the past 20 years. In an overall perception of a residential area in terms of its attractivity and vitality, the location, type, structural and technical condition of buildings have a significant influence, together with related public spaces that are indicative of the place’s continuity of development, identity, specificity and standard of living. A quantitative comparison of public amenities presents the differences between selected municipalities on the Danube development axis and their causal relationships. This paper suggests the minimum standards of public amenities necessary for a positive identification with a residential area on both the locals’ and the visitors’ part.
The liberalization of the rail freight market has been booming in recent years. On a pan-European scale, new freight carriers are increasing year after year. Support for the liberalization of the railway sector is mainly implemented through the so-called railway packages and one of the tools is the quantitative and qualitative indicators of the individual railway stations. The relevance of the article is mainly to propose measures for railway stations, where freight transport is declining despite the liberalized market. These are main railway stations located on regional lines and railway stations with a smaller scope of transport work. The aim of this paper will be to propose measures to support freight transport in the Slovak Republic by setting minimum requirements (standards) for railway stations depending on their performance, respecting their current technical level of railway operation.
Chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is an extraembryonic membrane very frequently used for in vivo studies in various researches. Since researches require a fast method for quantifying the CAM angiogenic response, there is a need to develop a new precise and unbiased method of quantification of angiogenesis in CAM, which would be easy to perform and suitable for analysis of a large number of samples. The objective of this paper is to apply a new method of quantification of angiogenesis in investigation of the development of blood vessels in the CAM, in particular days of embryonic life considered essential for CAM development. The present research included 75 fertilized eggs of heavy hybrid Ross 308. CAM sampling for stereological analyses was in key phases of embryonic development, namely on the 12th, 15th and 19th day. The results of the present investigation show that the increase in embryonic age results in increase in circulation index, which is also an indicator of angiogenic processes developing in CAM. The lowest value of circulation index (0.1952) was recorded on the first sampling day (E12), while the highest value (0.2666) was recorded on the last sampling day (E19). This method may be applied in researching different factors which affect angiogenesis in CAM.
The main purpose of this paper is to identify the drivers of firm performance by exploring both quantitative indicators - based on accounting profitability, shareholder value and economic value – and qualitative approach – based on balanced scorecard and triple bottom line. A literature review will be provided in order to obtain an optimum mix of quantitative and qualitative drivers for firm performance, on one hand, and a case study will be conducted for emphasizing the importance of both approaches, on the other hand.
Currently, ferry services are widespread in Europe, the Baltic States, the CIS and they continue to progress rapidly despite the unstable global economy. An activity of modern cargo-and-passenger fleet is based on nevertheless the perspective of stable profit generation. In conditions of ferry market instability, the important task is to ensure the break-even analysis in operation of vessels and justification of relevant quantitative indicators. At the same time, when managing the production activity of the ferry operators and, in particular, when analysing the ferry operation the indicator of its financial safety factor is of great importance. This paper refines static indicators and determines dynamic indicators of critical quantity of cargoes and passengers in ferry loading; gives analytical method of its justification; develops analytical method and presents graphical method of financial safety factor estimation when loading of cargo only or boarding of passengers only, as well as performing composite actions - loading of cargoes and picking up passengers.
The Potential Cogeneration Thermal Capacity Choice for Heat Source Group
The proposed in the paper heat source cogeneration potential assessment method, is based on the heat sources group gathered heat load duration curve analysis and optimization of installed thermal power of cogeneration unit. Heat loads of sources group are converted into the normative climatic conditions. For the method verification are used Lielvarde heat source operating data in year 2007. The results show that quantitative indicator value differences are small and methods of use are correct. There is investigated cogeneration optimal heat capacity correlation with the source of the average heat capacity, which significantly facilitates the assessment of the potential of CHP in the event if there are available only year fuel consumptions.
During the methods inspection process is performed Lielvarde heat source cogeneration thermal capacity optimization and found that the installed capacity is less than optimal. There are observed possible amounts for heat and power generation in optimal capacity case.
There are various definitions of tourist destination. All of them define tourist destination as an area with specific tourist facilities and attractions, (primary and secondary elements) which tourists choose as their journey goal. Budva individually represents the largest tourist destination due to number of arrivals and overnight stays. During its life cycle Budva has gone through different phases as a tourist destination. This thesis implies that it is not enough to use only common quantitative indicator of visitor number to define proper the position of tourist destination and predict further development. This text is based on a comparative analysis of the attitudes of tourists and local stakeholders in the three field researches, conducted in the period between 2015 and 2016. The thesis comes to the conclusion that the actual growth is based on meeting the needs of existing markets and tourists. On the other side, aspect of desired market position disagrees with scores of tourist offer elements- which should be input for improvement and preparation for the next stage in the destination development.
Purpose: The theory of endogenous growth suggests a number of relations between income inequality and human capital. However, empirical evidence in this field is scarce. Therefore, in this paper we aim to demonstrate the existence of interdependencies between income inequality and human capital across OECD countries.
Methodology: We present findings of the endogenous growth theory on the mechanisms linking inequality with human capital. Subsequently, we attempt to verify these links empirically using the regression function estimated by means of the generalized method of moments (GMM). The empirical analysis is based on panel data from 1995-2010.
Findings: The results of the study reveal the existence of a negative relationship between income inequality and health indicators (infant mortality and maternal mortality). However, we did not reach an authoritative conclusion about the relationship between income inequality and quantitative indicators of educational achievement.
Research limitations: Research is limited to the sample of OECD countries. Interdependencies between income inequality and human capital could be captured more clearly using a broader sample.
Originality: This paper presents one of few studies testing the relation between human capital and income inequality. The use of high-quality empirical data on inequality (SWIID data) and the generalized method of moments made it possible to contribute new arguments to the discussion of empirical analyses of these economic categories.