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, R.A.A., Bredeweg, B., Linnebank, F., Salles, P. & Cowx I.G. (2009). A qualitative model of limiting factors for a salmon cycle in the context of river rehabilitation. Ecological Informatics, 4, 299−319. DOI: 10.1016/j. ecoinf.2009.09.006. Oblak, L. & Zadnik Stirn L. (2000). The possibility of solving economic and environmental protection problems in wood industry companies by the application of the method of fuzzy goal programming. Ekológia (Bratislava), 19, 409−419. Orams, M.B. (1996). A conceptual model of tourist-wildlife interaction: The case for education as

Abstract

The aim of this article is the proposal of process of the safety analysis for complex dynamic systems in process of the proposal of control system for safety-critical processes. The method of safety analysis depends on various safety-critical states of system which are system are controlled by models. We propose to use the method SQMD for modeling these states. This method combines qualitative and quantitative methods of modeling states and takes advantage of both methods. The model of the proposal is shown in the diagram. The article includes detailed description of the tasks for each step of analysis.

-140. Davis R. and Hamscher W. (1992). Model-based reasoning: Troubleshooting, in W. Hamscher, L. Console and J. de Kleer (Eds.), Readings in Model-Based Diagnosis , Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Mateo, CA, pp. 3-24. Frank P. (1990). Fault diagnosis in dynamic systems using analitical and knowledge-based redundancy — A survey and some new results, Automatica 26(3): 459-474. Frank P. (1996). Analytical and qualitative model-based fault diagnosis — A survey and some new results, European Journal of Control 2(1): 6-28. Fuster-Parra P. (1996). A model for causal

Abstract

A group of old apartment houses with the age over 100 years (that is those carried out before the First World War) takes an important place in polish building resources. Technical maintenance of apartment houses, traditional methods erected, is nowadays and will be a valid problem in the nearest future. The results of the work refer to the general population, estimated for 600 objects, that is about 20% of municipal downtown apartment houses in Wrocław.

The purpose of the research was to identify an influence of widely considered maintenance of apartment houses on a degree and intensity of their elements’ deterioration. The goal of the work has been fulfilled by symptoms’ analysis of declining of inspected elements’ exploitation values, that is identification of mechanics of their defects arising.

The range of the work has required creation of original qualitative model of pinpointed defects and its transfer into quantitative one. It has made possible to analyse the reason - effect phenomena „defect - technical wear” relevant to the most important elements of Wroclaw downtown district’s apartment houses. The research procedure has been conducted in accordance of fuzzy sets theory which made possible to describe qualitative model of pinpointed defects and its transfer into a quantitative one.

Abstract

The work is devoted to the study of the possibilities to apply the System Dynamics method for the analysis of processes at the road transport enterprises. The study contains a concise review on examples of three simulation paradigms application for creating models, associated with the road motor transport. The following paradigms were under consideration: Discrete Event, Agent Based, and System Dynamics. Furthermore, the paper describes the causal loop diagram designed using the principles of system dynamics. This diagram is a qualitative model that represents the relationships between the main factors affecting the performance indicators of a road transport enterprise. The quantitative model constructed using the principles of system dynamics is also represented. The mentioned model reflects the process of functioning of a road transport enterprise during the year. The model is developed using Vensim simulation software.

Pedagogical Systems Theory and Model for Sustainable Human Development in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC)

The contexts are kindergarten teacher student education, early childhood education and the author's long term research process of constructing a new pedagogical systems theory. The two systems models, which the author created earlier, function now in a theoretical background. The models are different but both of them reflect on early childhood education and care (ECEC). The exact focused question is, what the interconnections of the two different models of ECEC are. Solutions will be shown by making a cross tabulation between these two qualitative models. The results will construct forward the new pedagogical systems theory of ECEC. This theory and a corresponding model can help teachers to become responsible mentors for sustainable development, especially for children's education for sustainable human development and well-being.

Abstract

Wargames are important methods for military planning, education and research. Qualitative models have a long tradition in wargaming for improving and practising the military skills as well as enhancing the military planning based on the experiences and understanding of the experts. Quantitative models are included in simulations and technical studies. Traditionally, the relations between the qualitative and quantitative research have been described as opposites. We shall consider both the approaches, their challenges and possibilities, and their combination for producing more exhaustive wargame and for answering to the criticism of wargame as a mainly qualitative method.

Our main research question is: How to combine quantitative and qualitative approaches and methods to improve quality of results of military wargames? Our main objective is to clarify and illustrate how qualitative and quantitative methods can be combined through the wargame. We shall emphasize the importance of the model selection at the beginning as it limits and guides the form (not the content) of the obtained results. We shall illustrate a combined wargame within different steps and the modelling themes of the game. Our results and findings should be useful for improving and focusing wargames to answer given research questions.

Abstract

The ability of businesses to adapt their strategy quickly and effectively to the changing environment in an ever more globalized economy has become one of the key success factors for sustainable competitive advantage and above average economic returns. Success factor oriented research has identified a number of obstacles that hinder effective strategy implementation and there is growing support in the research community that the behavior of middle management, who frequently take on key positions in strategy implementation projects, is of significant importance for success or failure. However, most studies have looked at the issue from a descriptive perspective, only few have analyzed the role of middle management from a normative viewpoint. This study builds upon Porter and Lawler’s qualitative model of managerial motivation which is transformed into a quantitative principal agent model to analyze the behavior of middle managers as key actors in executing strategic projects. The analysis highlights the necessity of adequate incentive systems for strategy implementation projects. Further, the importance of managing both objective and perceived implementation risk is demonstrated. Finally, the authors suggest distinguishing obstacles of strategy implementation into process issues and behavioral issues.

A Methodology for Improving Strategic Decisions in Social Systems with a Lack of Information

The design of strategies for social systems requires the use of qualitative information owing to the fact that quantitative information can be insufficient to solve the problems involved. The information that the specialists and the decision makers obtain is often incomplete and unreliable. Nevertheless, leaders have to make strategic decisions despite these deficiencies which should be based on the formal models (Kljajić et al. 2000; Škraba et al, 2003; Škraba et al 2007).

This paper describes a methodology elaborated to design the strategy of the city of Santa Cruz (on the Canary Islands). It has two main sections: the elaboration of a qualitative model and the use of System Dynamics. We combine them in a way that allows mixing qualitative and quantitative information to achieve a better understanding of the structure of the region, to know the tendencies of the present scenario and to estimate of the effects of alternative strategic decisions. We have obtained these results working with scarce quantitative information. This methodology may be applied to any social systems with similar characteristics.

Abstract

We report on some advances made in the problem of singularities in general relativity.

First is introduced the singular semi-Riemannian geometry for metrics which can change their signature (in particular be degenerate). The standard operations like covariant contraction, covariant derivative, and constructions like the Riemann curvature are usually prohibited by the fact that the metric is not invertible. The things become even worse at the points where the signature changes. We show that we can still do many of these operations, in a different framework which we propose. This allows the writing of an equivalent form of Einstein's equation, which works for degenerate metric too.

Once we make the singularities manageable from mathematical viewpoint, we can extend analytically the black hole solutions and then choose from the maximal extensions globally hyperbolic regions. Then we find space-like foliations for these regions, with the implication that the initial data can be preserved in reasonable situations. We propose qualitative models of non-primordial and/or evaporating black holes.

We supplement the material with a brief note reporting on progress made since this talk was given, which shows that we can analytically extend the Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordström metrics at and beyond the singularities, and the singularities can be made degenerate and handled with the mathematical apparatus we developed.