, Jauhiainen. Complete study of the pyrolysis and gasification of scrap tires in a pilot plant reactor. Environmental Science and Technology 2004 (38), 3189 - 3194.  Erick Ryoiti Umeki, Camilla Fernandesde Oliveira, Ricardo Belchior Torres, Ronaldo Gonçalvesdos Santos. Physico-chemistry properties of fuel blends composed of diesel and tire pyrolysisoil. Fuel 2016 (185), 236 - 242.  M. N. Islam, M. R. Nahian. Improvement of waste tire pyrolysisoil and performance test with diesel in CI Engine, Journal of Renewable Energy 2016, Article ID 5137247, 1- 8.  I. De
On average, there are about 60 kg of rubber in a passenger car, about 67% of which are tires, about 20% of all kinds body seals, doors and windows, suspension elements amount to 5%, the rest are other elements related to the engine (seals, hoses, wires, pads, etc.). Rubber waste is too valuable resource to direct to landfills. The vast majority of recovery of used tires in Poland (over 70%) is carried out by burning tires with energy recovery. Tires in the form of granulate, mixed with coal dust, are burn in some combined heat and power plants. The paper presents results of experimental studies of possible use for energy purposes, granules and pyrolysis oil the resulting from discarded car tires for increasing ecological and energy safety. Energy properties of granulates and pyrolysis oil were investigated and the shape and size of granulate particles were analyzed. For this purpose, digital image processing (CAMSIZER device) and calorimeter were used. It was found that the products of tire recycling decommissioned from exploitationare the high-energy material with good calorific value. Based on the results of experimental studies, application conditions of rubber waste for energy purposes was formulated.
Woody biomass feedstock is suitable for direct combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, ethanol or methanol production yielding heat, charcoal, pyrolysis oil, green electricity and bio-propellants. However, there are several issues concerning the environmental, social and economic sustainability of woody biomass production connected to land use, protection of wildlife habitats, conservation and remediation of landscapes. Establishing energy plantations on arable lands or on grasslands is generally considered as working against nature conservation, while setting them up in polluted areas or wastelands could be advantageous for wildlife, because of 1. more permanent cover that provides shelter and biomass for feeding, which is especially important in winter periods; 2. higher architectural complexity of vegetation providing more place for nesting and feeding for wildlife; 3. exploiting the advantages of root filtration, phytoremediation, or using less chemicals; 4. forbs in the undergrowth and young shoots able to provide better quality food for wildlife than the intensive monocultures. The solution is a complex management system, including land use, phytoremediation, waste and wastewater management and ecosystem-based planning incorporated in one dynamic structure.
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