Witold Posadowski, Artur Wiatrowski and Grzegorz Kapka
Magnetron sputtered nickel and nickel oxide films have been studied for various applications. We may find, among others, these films in electrochromic display devices, in resistive type gas sensors, as metal electrodes in electronic devices, in solar thermal absorbers. Pure nickel films deposited using PVD technique possess good corrosion and wear resistant properties. Magnetron sputtering has several advantages in film deposition (in comparison to other methods) such as relatively low heating temperature of the deposited substrate during sputtering process, high energy of sputtered atoms (about 10 eV) at the substrate, which influences positively the films adhesion. From application point of view, the most valuable feature of these films is the possibility of scaling target dimensions, which makes feasible the deposition on a several square meter surfaces. The improvement of magnetron sputtering devices design may influence positively the optimization of the deposition technology and its efficiency. The thin nickel and nickel oxide films were prepared by pulsed magnetron sputtering using original type WMK magnetron device. Ni (99.9 %) has been used as a sputtering target of 100 mm in diameter and different thicknesses (3 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm). The distance between the substrate and target was the same in all experiments and equal to 120 mm. Argon and oxygen gases were introduced during the reactive process through needle gas valves at a total pressure of 0.4 Pa. The sputtering power, sputtering pressure and oxygen partial pressure have been used as technological knobs for deposition processes. The helpful tool for controlling the pulsed magnetron sputtering process was the original parameter of supply (so called circulating power). Results from our experiments showed that the deposition of Ni films is possible even from targets of 6 mm thickness. Deposition rate increased proportionally with the sputtering power. The aim of this work is to use the acquired expertise to develop an efficient technology of thin nickel oxide layers for electrochromic systems.
G.W. Strzelecki, K. Nowakowska-Langier, R. Chodun, S. Okrasa, B. Wicher and K. Zdunek
The research on the influence of modulation frequency on the properties of films synthesized using a unique pulsed power supply combined with a standard unbalanced circular magnetron was conducted in the process of pulsed magnetron sputtering (PMS). It was shown that by using different levels of modulation, the composition of plasma (measured by optical emission spectroscopy, OES) as well as film growth rate and morphology (observed with scanning electron microscope, SEM), can be changed. The impact of modulation is related to the used materials and gases and can vary significantly. It was concluded that modulation frequency can greatly influence the synthesis of materials and can be used as an additional parameter in PMS. Specific relations between modulation frequency and synthesized material require further investigation.
Magnetron sputtering techniques are widely applied in industrial deposition processes of thin films and advanced materials development or treatment [ 1 - 4 ]. Through the years of research and scientific exploration a great variety of magnetron designs and their powering have been developed with a great interest in pulsedmagnetronsputtering at present time [ 5 - 13 ]. The one thing all magnetrons have in common is that energetic electrons are confined near the target by a combination of electric and magnetic fields. This combination
K. Tadaszak, K. Nitsch, T. Piasecki and W. Posadowski
Pulsed magnetron sputtering of metal targets in the presence of reactive gas is widely used to deposit compound materials. This method is very popular but still the aim of research is to obtain more stable and efficient processes. The standard procedure of compound thin film deposition is sputtering in so called reactive mode of magnetron work — sputtering of the target surface covered with the formed compound. The authors postulate that the problem of low deposition rate of reactive compounds can be solved if the magnetron source operates in the metallic mode or near the border of metallic and transient mode. Aluminium oxide thin films were deposited using high effective reactive pulsed magnetron sputtering. The main purpose of the research was electrical characterization of metal-compound-metal structures in the wide range of frequencies and determination of deposition technique influence on the thin film properties.
Božana Čolović, Danilo Kisić, Bojan Jokanović, Zlatko Rakočević, Ilija Nasov, Anka Trajkovska Petkoska and Vukoman Jokanović
Thin films of titanium oxides, titanium oxynitrides and titanium nitrides were deposited on glass substrates by the methods of direct current (DC) and pulsed magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc evaporation. Phase analysis of the deposited films by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) showed the presence of phases with various Ti oxidative states, which indicated a high concentration of oxygen vacancies. The films morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Investigations of the films wettability, either with water or ethylene glycol, showed that it depends directly on the concentration of oxygen vacancies. The wettability mechanism was particularly discussed.
Pamela Miśkiewicz, Iwona Frydrych, Wojciech Pawlak and Agnieszka Cichocka
Technology, pp. 120-130.
 Schiller, S., Goedicke, K., Reschke, J., Kirchhoff, V., Schneider, S., Milde, F. (1993). Pulsedmagnetronsputter technology. Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol.61, Issues 1–3, pp. 331-337.
 Swann S. (1988). Magnetron Sputtering. Physics in Technology, Vol.19.
 PN-EN ISO 12127-1: 2016 Clothing that protects against heat and flame. Determination of contact heat penetration through protective clothing or materials intended for it. Part 1: The contact heat produced by the heating cylinder.
 PN-EN 407
Rafał Chodun, Katarzyna Nowakowska-Langier and Krzysztof Zdunek
power in pulsed methods, such as PulsedMagnetronSputtering (PMS) [ 3 ], High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) [ 4 , 5 ], Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) [ 6 , 7 ]. The very important advantages of pulsed methods are the increase of internal energy of a thermodynamic system, the achievement of a high degree of plasma ionization during synthesis [ 8 ], the improvement of morphology of deposited films [ 9 – 11 ], the possibility of “engineering” the condensate on the surface of a solid phase by hyperthermal plasma species [ 12 , 13 ].
Krzysztof Zdunek, Lukasz Skowroński, Rafal Chodun, Katarzyna Nowakowska-Langier, Andrzej Grabowski, Wojciech Wachowiak, Sebastian Okrasa, Agnieszka Wachowiak, Olaf Strauss, Andrzej Wronkowski and Piotr Domanowski
) [3 – 7] and next for the pulsemagnetronsputtering deposition (PMS) (e.g. [8 – 11] ); we named the “gas” modified PMS as the GIMS (Gas Injection Magnetron Sputtering) [7 , 12] . The use of gas mode for deposition of TiN coatings on non-heated cutting tools by the modified IPD method enabled 16-fold increase of the tools lifetime in comparison to the uncoated tools  . This is a substantial improvement compared with 2 to 4 times extending of the coated tools Service life that was previously reported in literature for tools coated in industrial scale