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, Kirche (Festschrift für Alexander Hollerbach zum 70 Geburtstag), 363-384. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot. Brintnall, M. (2011). Public Participation in Rulemaking: Interests v. Information. Available at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265894346 Public Participation in Rulemaking Interests v Information. Bröhmer, J. (2004). Transparenz als Verfassungsprinzip: Grundgesetz und Europäische Union. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck. Bryde, B. O. (1994). Die Bundesrepublikanische Volksdemokratie als Irrweg der Demokratietheorie. Staats wissenschaften und Staatspraxis, 5(3), 305

. International Journal of E-Planning Research , 2014, Vol. 3, Issue 2, pp. 54–69. https://doi.org/10.4018/ijepr.2014040104 9. Rowe, G., Frewer, L.J. Public participation methods: A framework for evaluation. Science, Technology, & Human Values , 2000, Vol. 25, Issue 1, pp. 2–29. https://doi.org/10.1177/016224390002500101 10. Johnson, I.G., Macdonald, A., Briggs, J., Manuel, J., Salt, K., Flynn, E., Vines, J. Community Conversational. In: Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI ’17 . S.l.: Association for Computing Machinery

Introduction Researchers and practitioners of urban planning have had a variable interest in developing and applying methods of public participation since the 1970s. The interest in methods accelerated in the mid-1990s, accompanied by the developments in public participation geographic information systems (PPGIS) and participatory GIS (PGIS). The arrival of Web 2.0 in the 2000s and improvements in geographic information technologies resulted in the proliferation of geographically related tools and Web services (Geoweb) for individuals and groups. Developments in

in public park design. The article describes how and why public participation for landscape architects was introduced at Politechnika Krakowska (Cracow University of Technology, later referred to as CUT) and what inspired the development of the teaching programme. The theoretical background shows the links to the main theories in this field referring to both local and international researchers. Then the author justifies the choice of a public park as an appropriate topic for participatory design and refers to successful case studies from Poland and other European

Introduction In recent years, there has been a noticeable increase in the desire to promote public participation in urban development. Planners have become increasingly aware of the value of the knowledge held by local citizens as a means to enhance the quality of urban development projects. Events such as the turmoil seen in Germany in relation to the Stuttgart21 Project ( Böhm 2011 : 615) indicate a need for efficient participation processes. On the other hand, several participation projects, such as Tempelhofer Feld in Berlin ( Heuser & Bodenmeier 2016

Abstract

The importance of delegated legislation is growing in both the quantitative and qualitative sense. Under the American system, the so-called division of rulemaking authority between the legislative and executive branch was resolved at a very early juncture and in a highly pragmatic manner by applying the fundamental principles of the legislative procedure to the level of the rulemaking procedure, which primarily implies the transparency and openness of the latter. Conversely, Continental Europe did not develop a general theory of public participation which could provide a basis for the search for solutions to the situation. The purpose of this paper is to present different concepts of the rulemaking procedure and discuss the question of public participation. We conclude that, as the quantity and complexity of societal relationships grow, it is fruitful to use the so-called problem-solving model of the rulemaking procedure as a starting point for its procedural arrangement. This allows us to focus on the role that civil society, interest groups and the general public play in the contemporary governance process.

The rhetoric and reality of public participation in planning Public participation is a political principle and practice that seeks and facilitates the involvement of citizens potentially affected by, or interested in, a decision. The principle of public participation in planning holds that those who are affected by a decision have a right to be involved in the decision making process, and that their contribution will influence the decision ( Barlow 1995 ). Public participation in planning is seen by many as a means of citizen empowerment and as a key element of

R eferences 1. Public Participation in Europe : An international perspective, 2009 [online]. European Institute for public participation [cited 01.10.2016]. http://www.partizipation.at/eipp_public_participation0.html 2. Hofmann, S. Architecture Is Participation : Die Baupiloten : Methods and Projects. Berlin: Jovis, 2015. 206 p. 3. Mickos, M. An architecture of participation, 2012 [online]. Opensource [cited 01.10.2016]. https://opensource.com/business/12/6/architecture-participation 4. Murray, M., Greer, J., Houston, D., McKay, S. and Murtagh, B

all the views and efforts of this type in Poland. Be then forewarned: this criticism does not concern everyone but rather the average state of affairs. As in a sense I am going to discuss what participation is not , I’d like to present what participation is (after K. Pawłowska (2008) ). Its full programme is summarised in Table 1 . Table 1 Programme of public participation in planning, conservation, and design projects Source: Pawłowska et al. 2010 : 25–31 Successive stages of a project and phases of participation No. Stages of the project No. Phases of

Introduction The idea of public participation in urban planning is based on the concept that space is shaped by inhabitants of a given area, who make specific ties with it, identify with it and relate to it. Residents are also one of the most important groups affected by changes in spatial development and should be included in the process of decision making in light of contemporary governance models in participatory democracy ( Herbst 2014 , Siemiński 2014 ). Conflicts between different stakeholders related to space and land-use are an inherent aspect of urban