planning in publicpark design. The article describes how and why public participation for landscape architects was introduced at Politechnika Krakowska (Cracow University of Technology, later referred to as CUT) and what inspired the development of the teaching programme. The theoretical background shows the links to the main theories in this field referring to both local and international researchers. Then the author justifies the choice of a publicpark as an appropriate topic for participatory design and refers to successful case studies from Poland and other
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With the Great Council of State‟s 16th decree, the Meiji administration introduced the neologism kōen, „public park‟, to the Japanese language and the administrative system. One of the re-named parks was today‟s Ueno Kōen, which during the Meiji period changed with regards to character and appearance. It came to house the first modern museums, the first modern zoo, and the first public library. Industrial fairs were to be held in Ueno Kōen and a train station was built, connecting the rural north with Japan‟s capital. Meiji politicians re-designed the park grounds, in which today not only institutions of education, industry and modernity are located, but the highest number of homeless people in any one place in Tōkyō is to be found.
The research question, „What kind of space was constituted in the place Ueno Kōen during Meiji time?‟ is to be answered with the discourse theory of the German sociologist Reiner Keller and the theory on the social construction of space offered by the German sociologist Martina Löw. The article will show that Ueno Park was to become a spatial representation of Japan‟s modernisation process and of the policies of „enlightenment‟ and „rich country, strong army‟, bunmei kaika and fukoku kyōhei.
Michał Krzyżaniak, Dariusz Świerk, Piotr Urbański and Miłosz T. Walerzak
Investigations concerned the effect of different environmental variables on health condition of English oak (Quercus robur L.). It was shown that in the public parks in the city of Poznan the health condition of the analysed species is good. It was stated that health condition of this species in the Poznan parks is influenced by the distance from the immediate city centre, vicinity of traffic arteries and gas emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels by households neighbouring with the parks. Although results recorded in this study confirm literature data concerning the effect of environmental variables on health condition of English oak (Quercus robur L.), it was shown that certain environmental variables have a greater effect on health condition of the analysed species in Poznan.
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