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Why is it beneficial for landscape architects in Poland to learn about public participation while designing a public park? Reflections on the theory, education and practice of participative planning

planning in public park design. The article describes how and why public participation for landscape architects was introduced at Politechnika Krakowska (Cracow University of Technology, later referred to as CUT) and what inspired the development of the teaching programme. The theoretical background shows the links to the main theories in this field referring to both local and international researchers. Then the author justifies the choice of a public park as an appropriate topic for participatory design and refers to successful case studies from Poland and other

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Parasitic contamination of urban and rural environments in the Slovak Republic: dog’s excrements as a source

epidemiology and public health importance of toxocariasis: A zoonosis of global importance. Int. J. Parasitol., 43: 999–1008. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2013.07.004 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2013.07.004 [21] Matsuo, J., Nakashio, S. (2005): Prevalence of fecal contamination in sandpits in public parks in Sapporo City, Japan. Vet. Parasitol., 128: 115–119. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2004.11.008 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2004.11.008 [22] Neves, D., Lobo, L., Simoes, P. B., Cardoso, L. (2014): Frequency of intestinal

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Ueno Park during Meiji Times – a Mirror of its Time: Discursive Space and Symbolic Representation of Modernity

Abstract

With the Great Council of State‟s 16th decree, the Meiji administration introduced the neologism kōen, „public park‟, to the Japanese language and the administrative system. One of the re-named parks was today‟s Ueno Kōen, which during the Meiji period changed with regards to character and appearance. It came to house the first modern museums, the first modern zoo, and the first public library. Industrial fairs were to be held in Ueno Kōen and a train station was built, connecting the rural north with Japan‟s capital. Meiji politicians re-designed the park grounds, in which today not only institutions of education, industry and modernity are located, but the highest number of homeless people in any one place in Tōkyō is to be found.

The research question, „What kind of space was constituted in the place Ueno Kōen during Meiji time?‟ is to be answered with the discourse theory of the German sociologist Reiner Keller and the theory on the social construction of space offered by the German sociologist Martina Löw. The article will show that Ueno Park was to become a spatial representation of Japan‟s modernisation process and of the policies of „enlightenment‟ and „rich country, strong army‟, bunmei kaika and fukoku kyōhei.

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EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES ON HEALTH CONDITION OF Quercus robur L. IN PARKS

Abstract

Investigations concerned the effect of different environmental variables on health condition of English oak (Quercus robur L.). It was shown that in the public parks in the city of Poznan the health condition of the analysed species is good. It was stated that health condition of this species in the Poznan parks is influenced by the distance from the immediate city centre, vicinity of traffic arteries and gas emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels by households neighbouring with the parks. Although results recorded in this study confirm literature data concerning the effect of environmental variables on health condition of English oak (Quercus robur L.), it was shown that certain environmental variables have a greater effect on health condition of the analysed species in Poznan.

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Prevalence of Toxocara canis eggs in dog faeces from public places of Florence, Italy

.12.990 [18] Matsuo, J., Nakashio, S. (2006): Prevalence of fecal contamination in sandpits in public parks in Sapporo City, Japan. Vet. Parasitol., 128(1–2): 115–119. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2004.11.008 [19] Morrone, A., Paradisi, M., Paradisi, A., Valenzano, M., Fazio, R., Fornari, U., Franco, G. (2008): Autoch-thonous creeping eruption in an Italian child. Am. J. Clin. Dermatol., 9(3): 205–206 http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00128071-200809030-00011 [20] Noor Azian, M. Y., Sakhone, L., Lokman Hakim, S., Yusri, M. Y

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Role of green areas for space integration of Kraków’s Metropolitan Area

metropolitan city, Recreation and health resort functions - in Polish). In: Kraków Technical Transactions Series, 5-A/2008, Issue 14, Year 105, Kraków: Cracow University of Technology, pp. 37-60. Zachariasz, A., 2006: Zieleń jako współczesny czynnik miastotwórczy ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem roli parków publicznych (Green areas as a modern town creating factor with particular role of public parks - in Polish). In: Monography. Series Architecture, No. 336, Kraków: Cracow University of Technology, Zaleski, J., Bojarski, A., Grela, J

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The Effects of Different Vegetation Types on Local Climate

References Akbari, H. (2002). Shade trees reduce building energy use and CO 2 emissions from power plants. Environmental Pollution Vol. 116, Supplement 1, 119-126 p. Chang, C. R., Li, M. H. & Chang, S. D. (2007). A preliminary study on the local cool-island intensity of Taipei city parks. Landscape and Urban Planning. Vol. 80, Issue 4, 20, 386-395 p. Csepely-Knorr, L. (2009). Public Parks in Budapest at the turn of the 19th Century. Paper presented at Lippay- Ormos- Vas

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The Role of Vegetation in the Urban Policies of European Cities in the Age of the Sustainable City

, Prix spécial, Paris: Parenthèse. MINISTÈRE DE L’ECOLOGIE, DU DÉVELOPPEMENT DURABLE ET DE L’ENERGIE, http:// www.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/-La-Trame-verte-et-bleue,1034-.html. Moindrot, C. (1961), ‘Un essai de planification du paysage: les zones vertes des villes britanniques, Annales de Géographie, 70 (382), pp. 585-596. Olmsted, F. L. (1870), Public Parks and the Enlargement of Towns, Cambridge: Riverside Press. Paquot, T. (ed.), (2010), Les faiseurs de villes: 1850-1950, Gollion: Infolio

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Contamination of Sandpits with Soil-Transmitted Helminths Eggs in an Urban Environment

. Helminthologia , 44 (4), 170—176. 15. Traversa, D., di Regalbono, A. F., Di Cesare, A., La Torre, F., Drake, J., Pietrobelli, M., 2014: Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths. Parasit. Vectors , 7, 67. DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-7-67. 16. Uga, S., Kataoka, N., 1995: Measures to control Toxocara egg contamination in sandpits of public parks. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. , 52 (1), 21—24. 17. Weaver, H. J., Hawdon, J. M., 2010: Soil-transmitted helminthiases: implications of climate change and human behaviour. Trends Parasitol. , 26 (12), 574—581. DOI

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Toxocariasis in urban environment of western Slovakia

. Health., 9: 1312–1318 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2004.01332.x [15] Havasiová, K., Dubinský, P., Štefančíková, A. (1993): A seroepidemiological study of human Toxocara infection in the Slovak Republic. J. Helminthol., 67: 291–296 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X00013298 [16] Himonas, C., Antoniadou-Sotiriadou, K., Frydas, S. (1992): Research survey on the prevalence of Toxocara ova in the soil of public parks in Thessaloniki. Helliniki-Tatriki, 58: 333–339 [17] Jalili, N. A

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