The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) states that it is essential for people to understand what constitutes a healthy diet and to know how to use their resources in the most effective way. Iodine is an essential nutrient for mammals, required as a mandatory structural and functional element of thyroid hormones. Previous studies in Latvia highlighted a tendency of reduced level of iodine for newborns, school-age children and pregnant women. No studies in the general adult population had been conducted yet. The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of knowledge regarding the role of iodine in nutrition in the adult population of Latvia. In total 199 adults participated in the survey. Data on the knowledge about the occurrence of iodine in nature and foodstuffs, the role of iodine in nutrition, and its deficiency were obtained. Results of the survey showed that only 4.5% of respondents used iodised salt daily in the diet. One-fourth knew that iodine is widely found in the environment and more than one-third knew all of the main functions of iodine in the human body. Salt and sea food were mentioned as the most common iodine sources. While iodised salt is used rarely, public awareness about the role of iodine is good and potential iodine deficiency in Latvia is likely due to unbalanced diet rather than lack of knowledge.
Decoding Visual Metaphor ‘Global Warming’ in Public Awareness Campaigns
The tendency to create messages using the elements belonging to different semiotic systems shifts our perception of a communicative act, contributing to the establishment of multimodal and intersemiotic communication practice.
A visual metaphor is seen as one of the instances of a multimodal and intersemiotic message, which generates a text that is revealed gradually, uncovering numerous layers of meaning encoded within a metaphor and within visual, linguistic, and spatial settings it is placed in.
The paper sets out to explore the notion of a visual metaphor and focuses on the application of the visual metaphor ‘global warming’ on posters created for the needs of public awareness campaigns, investigating simultaneous manifestation of iconic and metaphorical mappings in the given visual metaphor.
The article discusses the values of the Vistula River in Poland’s capital city, Warsaw. The author presents the results of studies identifying residents’ perceptions of the river and outlines local community processes that aim to restore the river’s social value, notably through education.
Patrycja Misztal-Okońska, Mariusz Goniewicz, Magdalena Młynarska, Wojciech Krawczyk and Monika Butryn
Introduction. Chances for survival of a patient who has suffered from sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) depend on a number of factors. One of the most important however, is the time within which the patient is provided with actions to restore normal heart function. In the Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015, The European Resuscitation Council states that defibrillation done within 3-5 minutes since a patient with SCA lost his/her consciousness can increase the survival rate up to 50-70%. However, such a short time of providing help is only achievable through the implementation of universal defibrillation programs and the automatic external defibrillator (AED) devices densely distributed in public places. By contrast, every minute of delay in defibrillation reduces the probability of survival by approximately 10-12% until the hospital discharge.
Aim. The purpose of the research was to elicit the opinions of adult respondents on first aid and the use of automatic external defibrillator (AED).
Material and methods. The research method used in this paper was a diagnostic survey, the technique was a web-based questionnaire, and a research tool was the authors’ own questionnaire survey. The survey was active between April 8, 2016 and May 20, 2016. During this time, 116 opinions were collected.
Results. As many as 77% of respondents declared that they had attended a first aid course, but 21% of them stated that they no longer remembered the knowledge acquired. The number of 63% of respondents did not know what an automatic external defibrillator is. Only 27% of respondents knew that AEDs are public devices, and only 47% believed that using an AED would not worsen the health of the victim.
Conclusions. The availability of AEDs and knowledge of their use are insufficient. Low social awareness and irrational fear of using an AED (fear of deterioration of the victim’s health) support the need for continuing education in this area.
Islem Saadaoui, Christopher Robin Bryant, Hichem Rejeb and Alexandru-Ionuţ Petrişor
This research examines global issues concerning the development of mountain areas considered as territories difficult to manage. The case study area is part of the sub-region of High Alpine Steppes belonging to the Tunisian Ridge and reaching Tebessa Mountains in Algeria. The central question of this article is based on the analysis of the links between the representations produced by mountain landscapes and the construction of a border line that must meet the requirements of sustainable development. Eco-landscape determinants and the role of public authorities and population must be better defined so that the products of this space provide a better quality of life endowed with the alternatives of local and sustainable development. Our hypothesis is that the mountain areas of West Central Tunisia still have a real ecological potential little disturbed by a chimerical development, and can constitute assets for the territorial development of the area. The approach adopted by this work is a scoping audit based on the floristic richness and the monitoring of its spatiotemporal dynamics. The results of this research allowed us to draw rich conclusions; the phyto-ecology approach has shown a relative floristic richness that remains highly dependent on the climatic cycles and intervention of human action; this area must be considered as a priority of the public planning policies aimed at improving the quality of lives in these fragile zones in the context of sustainable development.
Gytis Grigaliūnas, Edita Lycholip, Greta Burneikaitė, Asta Grigaliūnienė, Gintarė Kaklauskaitė, Romualdas Mačiūnas, Mindaugas Balčiūnas, Rima Steponenienė, Aušra Kavoliūniene, Jelena Čelutkienė and Stefan Störk
 Remme WJ, McMurray JJV, Rauch B, Zannad F, Keukelaar K, Cohen-Solal A, et al. Publicawareness of heart failure in Europe: first results from SHAPE. Eur Heart J 2005;26(22):2413-21.
 Lainscak M, Letonja M, Kovacic D, Hodoscek LM, Marolt A, Bartolic CM, Mulej M, Penko M, Poles J, Ravnikar T, Iskra MS, Pusnik CS, Jug B (2014) General publicawareness of heart failure: results of questionnaire survey during Heart Failure Awareness Day 2011. Arch Med Sci 2014;10(2):355-60.
 Störk S
Ali Rafiq, Saba Fatima, Beenish Masood, Rizwan Ahmed Khan, Fareeha Ahmed Khan, Aimen Liaquat, Aelia Fatima, Mohammad Shahrukh Tanveer, Mahreen Sulaiman, Syed Yousuf Hasan, Mariam Aehtesham and Sidra Khan
the virus [ 4 ] and the incidence of HBV infection is rising steadily [ 5 ]. The reasons may include the lack of proper health facilities, poor economic status, and poor publicawareness about the transmission of major communicable diseases including HBV, HCV, and HIV [ 6 ]. Pakistan lies in the “Intermediate zone” of the WHO zones of viral hepatitis. The 3 major modes of its transmission are hematogenous, sexual, and vertical. Reuse of contaminated needles and syringes is also a major source for spread. There is a high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma
This article shows the methods and techniques that are used for cleaning exhaust fumes from dust–gas particles. The pollutants come from a complicated electricity production process in a thermal power station, whose main fuel is a hard coal or a brown coal. In the recent years, using purification installations has been the result of changing regulations in the field of environmental protection and increasing public awareness. The methods are aimed to reduce nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and dust emissions to the environment, not exceeding the emission limit values for individual chemical compounds.
Andreea Simina Răulea, Constantin Oprean and Mihail Aurel Ţîţu
As a concept, knowledge covers vast ground and has multiple meanings. In the present day, it is frequently encountered through the term ‘knowledge economy,’ which is usually used to refer to the importance of knowledge as a contemporary commodity. Public awareness of the importance of intellectual property in the information age is essential to the successful implementation and growth of the knowledge economy. Most people do not have a very clear idea about the role of intellectual property in encouraging creativity and the importance to our economic well-being. While it is necessary to increase public awareness in this area, it will not be easy. Intellectual property is typically perceived as being incomprehensible because just a little part of the people has education in this field. IP education means the skills and competences that young people can be expected to acquire in the classroom that enable them to become familiar with intellectual property, understand its potential to generate income and economic growth and lead them to respect IP rights. This paper will present the role that universities play in the development of the knowledge based economy and the need to have more educational programs in this field.
Md. Rajdoula Rafe, Syeda Naureen Ahmed and Zebunnesa Ahmed
Chikungunya virus is an Alphavirus that possesses characteristics similar to that of an arthropod-borne virus. Chikungunya virus has been one of the major concerns for the last few decades due to its nature of explosive spreading throughout the world. This article is intended to give detailed information about Chikungunya virus, and includes its pathogenesis, origins, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Although, recent researches suggests various approaches to treating Chikungunya virus, extensive literature search on Chikungunya virus has revealed that, currently, there is no effective treatment available and the virus is greatly dependent on its vectors. Patients affected by Chikungunya virus mainly show symptoms of fever, arthralgia, joint pain and skin rash. Since there is no effective treatment available, public awareness is the most significant factor for potential prevention against Chikungunya virus.