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Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The main goal of the article is to prove the impact of the Wałbrzych Special Economic Zone (WSSE) “Invest Park” on the development of the Wałbrzych Agglomeration region.

Materials and methods: The research carried out in 2017-2018 involved three groups of respondents: Wałbrzych Agglomeration residents, entrepreneurs and local government authorities. The study was supplemented with the information from WSSE “Invest Park”.

Results: For all three groups of respondents, WSSE “Invest Park” plays an important role in the development of the Wałbrzych Agglomeration. Its creation had the greatest impact on reducing the unemployment rate and also on improving the infrastructure. It is also important that WSSE top many rankings, gaining the first position as one of the best investment areas.

Conclusions: Establishing the WSSE in the area of the Wałbrzych Agglomeration has had a significant impact on the development of the region. This development is visible in the activities undertaken in the zone, attracting investors and creating new investment areas.

Abstract

This article examines the relationship between the type of a development aid implementing organisation (public or private) and the quality of project management in development aid. The author begins with main public administration considerations - how public aid administration is different from private and furthermore, how particular sectoral characteristics of organisations influence the quality of the management process. The article combines empirical findings on the differences between the public and private sector with a complex setting of development aid and main success factors in development aid activity, in order to determine whether for-profit or public companies are more likely to achieve better project management processes. The article identifies some indices that favorise private companies, and outlines further necessary steps that should be taken in order to broaden the argumentation and confirm or reject this assertion

Abstract

As issued in the Competition Policy Brief on the new state aid rules for a competitive aviation industry by the Competition Directorate-General of the European Commission in February 20141, it will be more difficult for unprofitable airports, to obtain financial public subsidies on EU, national or regional level. Although the positive impact of small airports on the regional development and general accessibility was mentioned, still the operating aid to the airports shall be cut out over a maximum of 10 years. It has been further stated that the vast majority of small and regional airports experience problems to cover their running operative costs, as a result from an intensive market competition and overlapping of airports’ catchment areas preventing even some promising airports from growth. Public subsidies are mostly used by the airport management for infrastructural investments, to cover operating losses or to attract price-sensitive airlines. Herewith, among other things, the EU Commission is pointing out at the lack of cooperation structures and network strategies among the regional airports and at rather isolated and individual approach during elaboration of the airport development scenarios. However, the Competition Policy Brief permits public aid to regional airports, among other things if there is sufficient transports need to establish transition periods for small airports; the need for more flexibility of the regional airports in the remote areas has been underlined. The EU Commission is expecting herewith not to close the regional airports, but to stimulate them to operate on cost efficient and profitable basis, and that only the most inefficient airports will be closed.

To cope with the upcoming challenges the regional airports are demanded now to revaluate and reconsider their future development plans. While focusing on the passenger traffic many regional airports ignore or underestimate the benefits of the airfreight market. Although the air cargo has rather a low volume, but very high revenue yield part. Business internationalization is one of the important driving forces for the airfreight nowadays as well as decreasing air transport costs due to improving efficiency and growing competition among the air carriers. Most regional airports in the Baltic Sea region that act totally isolated, do not have a clear picture of the current situation on the international air cargo market, its future perspectives and sustainable development plans. Trying to meet the market demand, the regional airports are making huge and unjustified investments, e.g. improving airport infrastructure. It is not clear till now which elements of the Pan-Baltic cargo market could be managed as an alternative revenue yielding services for consolidated operation by air or what infrastructure is needed to provide the opportunity for an optimal economic mix of road-rail-air-sea transport? Nowadays, to a large degree air cargo traffic relies on scheduled, frequent passenger services in hub-and-spoke as well as in point-to-point traffic. Regional airports are presently suffering from a lack of scheduled uplift capacity. The volume currently transported by air in the regional airports is almost entirely based on the occasional charter flights. However, the growth of the air cargo business is likely to be based not only on cargo charters, but to a larger extend on truck-based services for transit shipments. Onward transportation by truck may occur on road feeder service, so called “flying trucks”, where a real truck substitutes a flight. “Flying trucks” are having flight numbers etc., therefore they must be prioritized in many ways in the BSR transport policy.

This paper investigates the role of Road Feeder Services concept (thereafter named here as “Flying Truck”) as an optional freight value proposition for the development of the regional airports and their possible participation in the air cargo market as a supplement instrument to generate additional revenue, thus making the airports more profitable and attractive.

. Oslo: Film & Kino. Helgesen, T. & Gaustad, T. (2002) Medieøkonomi: strategier, markedsføring, medierettigheter . Nesbyen: Stølen, kap. 8 Hoskins, C.; Mirus, R. & Rozeboom, W. (1988) ‘Reasons for the US Dominance of the International Trade in Television Programmes’, Media, Culture & Society , 10, 499-515. Le Floch-Andersen, L. (1999) Public Aid Mechanisms for the Film and the Audiovisual Industry in Europe, 1995-1999 . Strasbourg: European Audiovisual Observatory. Marna, T. & Khu, F. (2003) “The Allocation of Financial Instruments to Project Activity Risks

Nieruchomości Rolnych ( Information about the results of monitoring the implementation in 2013 financial plans of Agricultural Property Agency ), 2014, Najwyższa Izba Kontroli, Departament Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Wsi, Warszawa. K araszewski W., S udoł S., 1997, Empirical Research on the Process of Transformation of Polish Companies in the Period of 1990–1995 , Wyd. UMK, Toruń, pp. 17–18. K isiel R., K amińska M., L izińska W., 2014, Value and Structure of Public Aid in Poland Against the European Union Background During the Years 2007–2012 , Olsztyn Economic Journal, 9 (1

where new energy enterprises are located. Public aid is indispensable for two reasons. Firstly, the implementation of ventures in the field of RES bears investment risks primarily due to the fact that current energy systems are organised in order to support the production and distribution of energy generated centrally by large energy actors. The long-term technological and institutional evolution leading to the establishment of an energy sector based on relatively large power units using hard coal, named by G.C. Unruh (2000) carbon lock-in, dramatically impedes the

houses. A more friendly climate for this type of solution appeared after 1956. numerous legal acts were passed then which were aimed at offer- ing public aid for this type of investment.25 But in spite of this, investments still encountered numerous barriers which in a very significant way re- stricted their scale. One of the most formidable difficulties lay in obtain- ing state-owned building plots. Their allocation was frequently impossi- ble due to the absence of local zoning plans.26 The areas offered to those building their own homes were deprived of

of special economic zones in 2006-2008], 2010, NIK, Bydgoszcz. J arczewski W., 2007, S pecjalne strefy ekonomiczne w gminach [ Special Economic Zones in Municipalities ], Samorząd Terytorialny, nr 7-8, s. 89-96. J ohansson H., N ilsson L., 1997, Export Processing Zones as Catalyses , World Development, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 2115-2128. K isiel R., L izińska W., (red), 2012, Efektywność pomocy publicznej w specjalnych strefach ekonomicznych w Polsce [ Efficiency of Public Aid in Special Economic Zones in Poland ], Wyd. Nauk. UWM, Olsztyn. Koncepcja rozwoju

into the hands of affluent regions in which numerous companies already operate ( Badri 2007 ). On the other, regional differences in available public aid mean that we can expect that some entrepreneurs will decide to apply for such aid, and it is usually allocated to the most vulnerable regions ( Almond et al. 2015 ). Territorial differences in entrepreneurial activity The issue of location of companies can be analyzed from the perspective of the theory of location (McCann & Sheppard 2003) or as a spatially differentiated process ( Schmenner et al. 1987 ; Domański