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. Isshiki H. (2006a) Estimation of Ionospheric Delays in Dual Frequency Positioning, IGNSS Symposium 2006 , Australia. Isshiki H. (2006b) Estimation of Ionospheric Delays in Dual Frequency Positioning- Future Possibility of Using Pseudo-range Measurements -, 2006 International Symposium on GPS/GNSS , Korea. Han S., Rizos C. (1999) The Impact of Two Additional Civilian GPS Frequencies on Ambiguity Resolution Strategies, ION NTM 1999 , The Institute of Navigation. Hatch R. (1982) Synergism of GPS code and carrier measurements, Proceedings of the Third International

. Daehee Won, Precise Positioning, http://smileforday.com/?page_id=84 5. Dehuri, S. and Tripathy, S. (2011) An extended bayesian/HAPSO intelligent method in intrusion detection system. Knowledge Mining Using Intelligent Agents, Vol. 6, pp. 133. 6. GPSTk, The GPS Toolkit, http://www.gpstk.org. 7. IGS Data, http://sopac.ucsd.edu/dataBrowser.html. 8. Jgouta, M. and Nsiri, B. (2015) Statistical estimation of GNSS pseudo-range errors, Procedia Computer Science, Elsevier, vol. 73, pp. 258-265. 9. Jwo, D.J. and Weng, T.P. (2008) An adaptive sensor fusion method with

A New Algorithm for Long Baseline Kinematic Positioning with Dual Frequency GPS/GNSS Receivers

Smoothing pseudo ranges with ionosphere-free combinations of phase ranges can be useful for long rang positioning, since this new smoothing process can significantly remove the effect of ionosphere delays in positioning applications. The smoothing process can be conducted without being affected by cycle slips, though it uses phase ranges. Therefore, it can provide a robust precise positioning solution which is not affected by cycle slips. The multipath effects may also be reduced, if the averaging interval taken is long enough. If the low frequency noise components and the hardware biases in pseudo ranges are reduced, the positioning performance with the smoothed pseudo ranges may be promising. In future GNSS receivers, both the noises and the hardware biases in pseudo ranges will be significantly reduced. Then, the positioning based on the proposed algorithm will be very useful.

Abstract

In this paper an adaptive unscented Kalman filter based mixing filter is used to integrate kinematic satellite aided inertial navigation system with vision based measurements of five representative points on a runway in a modern receiver that incorporates carrier phase smoothing and ambiguity resolution. Using high resolution multiple stereo camera based measurements of five points on the runway, in addition to a set of typical pseudo-range estimates that can be obtained from a satellite navigation system such GPS or GNSS equipped with a carrier phase receiver, the feasibility of generating high precision estimates of the typical outputs from an inertial navigation system is demonstrated. The methodology may be developed as a stand-alone system or employed in conjunction with a traditional strapped down inertial navigation systems for purposes of initial alignment. Moreover the feasibility of employing adaptive mixing was explored as it facilitates the possibility of using the system for developing a vision based automatic landing controller.

.: Accuracy in fixing ship’s positions by CCD camera survey of horizontal angles, Geomatics and Environmental Engineering, No. 4, pp. 47 - 61 8. Naus K., Wąż M.: A Simplified navigational chart pyramid dedicated to an autonomous navigational system. Polish Hyperbaric Research, Vol. 40, No. 3, 2012, pp. 139-161, ISSN 1734-7009 9. Nowak A.: Protection Level of “Snapshot” RAIM Methods in Poor Geometry of Satellites, Advances in Computer Science - Network Centric Warfare, ISBN 978-83-922739-8-1, 2009, pp.156-162 10. Nowak A.: Influence of Pseudo-range Measurement Errors and

algebraic solution of the GPS equations" in IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 1991, Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 1021-1030. J.S. Abel, J.W. Chaffee "Existence and uniqueness of GPS solutions" in IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 1991, Vol. 27, No. 6, pp. 952-956. J.W. Chaffee, J.S. Abel "On the exact solutions of pseudorange equations" in IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 1991, Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 1021-1030. E.W. Grafarend, J.A. Chan "A closed-form solution of the nonlinear pseudo-ranging equations" in Artificial

. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Naval Postgraduate School, December 2005. 17. McCarthy, M., H. Muller. Positioning with Independent Ultrasonic Beacons. Department of Computer Science, University of Bristol, U. K., Technical Report: CSTR-05-005. http://www.cs.bris.ac.uk/ , www.cs.bris.ac.uk/Publications/Papers/2000430.pdf . 18. Lazik, P., A. Rowe. Indoor Pseudo-Ranging of Mobile Devices Using Ultrasonic Chirps. – SenSys’12, 6-9 November 2012, Toronto, ON, Canada. 19. Filonenko, V., C. Cullen, J. Carswell. Investigating Ultrasonic Positioning on Mobile

: Algorithm for preliminary processing of pseudo-range measurements. In: Modern Problems of Radio Electronics. An Anthology, Krasnoyarsk State Technological University, Krasnoyarsk, 425–427 (in Russian). Stubarev D. V., 2006a: Exclusion of outliers in results of trajectory observations. Stubarev D. V., Tolstikov A. S., Vestnik SGGA, 11 , Novosibirsk, SSGA, 25–29. Stubarev D. V., 2006b: Smooth replenishment of missing trajectory observation data. Vestnik SGGA, 11 , Novosibirsk, SSGA, 33–38. Stubarev D. V., 2008a: Study on algorithms for preliminary data processing using

/Matlab_682/aerosim_ug.pdf (website visited in 2012). [33] Van Grass F., et al., GPS Interferometric Attitude and Heading Determination: Initial Flight Test Results, Navigation (ION Journal), 1991, Vol. 38. [34] Wieser A., et al., Improved Positioning Accuracy with High Sensitivity GNSS Receivers and SNR Aided Integrity Monitoring of Pseudo-range Observations, Proceedings of the 18th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of Institute of Navigation, Long Beach, CA, 2005, pp. 13-16.

.W. 1991 Existence and uniqueness of gps solutions IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 27 952 956 10.1109/7.104271 [8] Chaffee, J.W. and Abel, J.S. (1994), On the exact solutions of the pseudorange equations. IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., 30, 1021-1030. 10.1109/7.328767 Chaffee J.W. Abel J.S. 1994 On the exact solutions of the pseudorange equations IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 30 1021 1030 10.1109/7.328767 [9] Grafarend, E.W. and Shan, J. A. (1996), closed-form solution of the nonlinear pseudo-ranging equations (GPS). Artificial satellites, Planetary