Subject and purpose of work: The article deals with the issue of risk mainly in banking activity. Different definitions of risk were reviewed as tools for risk management in banks and for regulatory activities by institutions. Materials and methods: The research material was taken from the subject literature and official documents of financial market institutions - international organizations, as well as foreign and domestic financial institutions. They were mainly legal acts, standards and guidelines/recommendations. Particular attention was paid to documents published by banking supervision authorities. Results: As a result of the study, the multiplicity of concepts and approaches were found to define and identify banking risks as the categorizations presented by regulators seemed to be a standard to apply in risk management practices. Conclusions: Among the risk categorization used by banks, the leading ones have been presented by supervisory authorities. Defining the types of risk in operations should be the first stage of the internal risk management process which is necessary for banks’ survival. Ensuring high quality of the implementation of the first stage determines the efficiency and effectiveness of the entire process. The decisive requirements set by European and national regulators with regard to banks’ application of risk categorization as part of the risk management system contributed to mitigating the phenomena related to the global financial crisis among banks in Europe.
The credibility of economic information provided by banks is one of the key elements of building trust between the institutions and the economic environment. The activities of the national banking sector, due to the special responsibility for the entrusted deposits, is subject to restrictive legal regulations and is controlled by the banking supervision. The legal act binding the banks and regulating, among others, the rules of credit risk measurement derived from mortgage-secured loans is the S Recommendation which was issued by the Financial Supervision Commission. The publication discusses the imperfections of this supervisory regulation with regard the defined concepts and recommended methods for the measurement of credit exposure, the interpretation and the method of determining the value of mortgage security and LtV.
The financial stability is a fundamental condition for ensuring and maintaining the balance and the stability at macroeconomic level. At the same time, ensuring the macroeconomic financial stability is a priority of the state’s economic security as well as of all the public authorities having responsibilities in the field of the macro-prudential regulation and supervision. In this context, our scientific approach aims at systematizing, deepening and developing this fundamental issue of the financial theory and practice.
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