According to the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation, 75% of endangered species should be preserved in ex situ collections till 2020. The genus Liparis has a lot of recognised taxons, but only one species, Liparis loeselii (L.) Rich., grows in Europe. L. loeselii is a rare and endangered orchid species occurring in Europe. In Latvia L. loeselii is classified as the third category of endangered and protected species. To develop the best conservation strategy, the knowledge concerning the genetic differences of protected plants in a particular area is crucial. For this purpose, the genetic diversity of L. loeselii populations from different Latvian habitats was tested. The inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism method (iPBS) was used for population genetic diversity evolution. In total, 54 accessions from nine habitats were collected and analysed. L. loeselii leaves have a high content of phenols that reduce the quality of extracted DNA. It was found that the percentage of polymorph loci varied among the populations of L. loeselii growing in different habitats; some of the populations were genetically homogeneous. The genetic diversity levels of L. loeselii populations are related with the population age and the growing conditions.
The choice of suitable biodiversity assessment methods for practical purposes in city planning and decision-making is still a challenging problem. Despite the availability of a wide variety of methods for almost all dimensions of diversity (mainly species and habitat diversity, including spatial aspects), few of them have entered the practical ‘daily’ work. In the example of in-depth examinations in German and Czech cities (e.g., Dresden and Liberec), it was found that the most frequently applied analyses are those of protected species and habitats in urban nature conservation in general, and particularly in city development planning to derive avoidance, protection and compensation measures. Preference analyses (questionnaires, structured interviews) are becoming increasingly popular. Economic calculations of habitat values and the valuation of ecosystem services are still in their infancy. We will present methods that are presently being applied or could be included in a practical methodological toolkit to analyse and valuate biodiversity in urban nature conservation, city planning and decision-making.
This article is an attempt to draw attention to the differentiation used to conserve endangered and protected species of flora in an area that is administered by the management board of the State Forests. I also draw attention to areas of insufficient knowledge of this subject-matter. A detailed inventory of endangered and protected species of flora for the purpose of planning in forestry would be very useful in light of laws related to nature conservation and the problem of preserving biological diversity. Research in the forest administration region of Sokołowice indicates that almost 2/3 (65.16%) of all sites harbouring endangered and protected species of flora are new (previously undocumented), despite the existence of numerous protected areas – this fact indicates that there are great research possibilities in this field. The main conclusion from this research confirms that multifunctional forestry in Poland will provide the greatest opportunity to preserve the widespread and numerous sites holding endangered and protected species of flora in economically important forests.
Ecological and sociological spectrum of Ostericum palustre at new localities in central Poland
The paper presents new data on the distribution of Ostericum palustre (a strictly protected vulnerable species) in central Poland. In the period of 2008-2009, new population of this species were found in the north-eastern part of Łódź Province. Ostericum palustre was present in the described localities in meadow, herb, peat bog and reed bed communities. The species was most numerous in well preserved purple moor-grass meadows. New localities of Ostericum palustre described in the article are instrumental in the protection of this species in central Poland.
The influence of recent anthropogenic and climatic changes on the distribution or population size of individual species should be especially pronounced at the boundaries of their geographical ranges. Therefore, in summers 2008-2010, we live-trapped small mammals and analysed habitat features on 14 study plots comprising various wet habitats of Słowiński National Park (at the Baltic coast in northern Poland) in order to recognize the current distribution and population size of Neomys anomalus Cabrera, 1907 in its northernmost population in Europe. N. anomalus was, however, captured only on one plot - a wet, unmown meadow crossed by unkempt drainage ditches, situated on the Gać Peninsula (Półwysep Gacki). This result, compared to historical data, suggests that neither the abundance of N. anomalus has increased nor its range has been extended. We give a detailed description of the habitat in this study plot. The information can be useful in the protection of this rare shrew species with very specific habitat requirements.
Protected plant species of forest, lakes and peatbogs in the Western Part of the Drawskie Lakeland
A floristic study of forest communities, lakes, and peatbogs of the western part of the Drawskie Lakeland was carried out in 2006-2008. The study revealed the presence of numerous valuable plant species. More than 400 floristic lists were compiled. Plant surveys were conducted with the aid of the ATPOL square grid system. To increase the accuracy of the surveys, the basic ATPOL squares (10x10 km) were additionally subdivided into smaller ones of 1x1 km. The area of study was found to support 416 plant species, including protected ones: 17 species strictly protected (e.g., Blechnum spicant, Dactylorhiza incarnata, Drosera rotundifolia, Lycopodium annotinum, Utricularia intermedia) and 12 under partial protection (e.g., Frangula alnus, Menyanthes trifoliata, Ononis spinosa, Ribes nigrum, Viburnum opulus). The list of protected plants contains one species (Lobelia dortmanna) included in the Polish Red Book of Plants.
The paper presents information about habitat conditions of occurrence of the Ptychoverpa bohemica (Krombh.) Boud. fungus in man-made habitats in Silesian Upland in southern Poland. Soil samples were collected from 5 sites in order to measure the contents of organic carbon, nitrogen, carbon/nitrogen ratio and percentage of organic matter, as well as the values of pH and electric conductivity. Lists of plants associated with Ptychoverpa bohemica were also prepared. Results of the investigation show that pH values of analysed soils are neutral to slightly acidic, they show negligible salinity, and the content of organic carbon, nitrogen and organic matter are higher in their upper levels. The floristic composition of patches with Ptychoverpa bohemica usually consists of species which are common in urban areas, such as apophytes and anthropophytes, for example: Betula pendula, Brachythecium rutabulum, Epipactis helleborine, Pinus sylvestris, Populus tremula, Quercus robur, Salix caprea and Sorbus aucuparia.
Conservation of endangered plant species requires a thorough knowledge about the present state of their populations and habitats as well as identification of current and potential threats. The aim of this research was to evaluate current distribution, state of habitats and the size of populations of Equisetum telmateia (Equisetaceae) in Lithuania as well as to reveal the main threats and requirement for the conservation of this species. Analysis of all available information revealed that E. telmateia currently occurs in seven localities in Lithuania, mainly in the southern part of the country. One formerly recorded population in the south-western part of Lithuania has become extinct. Two reported localities in the environs of Druskininkai (southern Lithuania) are doubtful, because the reports have been based on misidentified specimens. Locality of E. telmateia in the western part of the country probably has been provided erroneously and one locality in the south-eastern region of Lithuania should be verified and the identity of the species requires confirmation. Total area occupied by the stands of E. telmateia in Lithuania is 2.41 ha. Most frequently this species grows in river valleys or close to rivers and occupies alluvial forest habitats, which frequently creates complexes with habitats of mineral-rich springs or springs with tufa formations. Occasionally it grows in the habitats of forests of slopes, tall herb fringe communities and hay meadows. Sporulation of E. telmateia in Lithuania is poor: no fertile shoots were registered in two studied populations, whereas in other localities few fertile shoots were recorded. Evaluation of the status of E. telmateia in Lithuania applying the IUCN criteria resulted in its categorization as a vulnerable species. The main threats for E. telmateia are forest logging and changes in habitat hydrological regime, though wild animals, human activities and invasive plant species also have certain negative impact on the populations of this species.
This paper describes a new occurrence and location of the green shield moss Buxbaumia viridis (Moug. ex Lam. & DC.) Brid. ex Moug. & Nestl. in the Białowieża Forest. One sporophyte was found on a decaying spruce log. However, its existence and the present environmental conditions of the site are threatened by the death of spruce trees. The dying of the spruce trees is expected for the near future and will lead to altered shade conditions impacting on the shield moss.
Research on a critically endangered and protected population of Trapa natans was carried out during growing season in 2016 at the site located on the Obnica channel within the region of Międzyodrze. It is a location that is close to the one indicated in historical sources by Winkelmann over 120 years ago. The post-war research did not confirm presence of this species within the region of Międzyodrze despite favourable biological conditions. The sites were declared relict and documented only in stratigraphy of peat deposits, detritus gyttja and bottom mineral sediments. Recently, an assessment of the population and habitat status were carried out. The appropriate indicators of the species status were examined according to the methodology of Chief Inspectorate of Environmental Protection. The floristic composition of Trapetum natantis association patches found within the researched site were analysed, reed bed associations belonging to the class of Phragmitetea and plant communities of pleustophytes, nymphaeids and elodeids belonging to the class Potametea and Lemnetea were recognised in the contact zone. On the basis of the collected data, particular attention was paid to the relevance of Trapa natans monitoring at the site located on the Obnica channel within the Międzyodrze region due to its indicative character. The conservation status of the population could be influenced by the change of water trophy within Międzyodrze channels caused by different forms of anthropopressure, including commercial use of this water body, hydromeliorative works, changes that are due to the progressive succession of water plants and reeds, which slow down the water flow rate within the area of Międzyodrze, favour accumulation of organic matter and increase of water trophy as well as fluctuations of surface water thermal activity caused by changing weather conditions.